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Thread: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

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    Lightbulb Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    First of all we ask : is there a Celtic and Viking connection?


    Norsemen who settled in southern Greenland carried more Celtic than Nordic blood – but they were still decidedly Scandinavian

    An analysis of DNA from a Viking gravesite near a 1000 year-old church in southern Greenland shows that those buried there had strong Celtic bloodlines
    Greenland Vikings ?had Celtic blood?


    The Norse are first recorded in Ireland in 795 when they sacked Lambay Island. Sporadic raids then continued until 832,
    History of Ireland (800?1169) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Norse-Gaels - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Scotland
    Vikings Scotland

    The Vikings in Scotland

    Viking Answer Lady Webpage - Vikings in Scotland and the Western Isles

    Shetland
    Viking Answer Lady Webpage - Vikings in Scotland and the Western Isles

    Did the Scots visit Iceland? New research reveals island inhabited 70 years before Vikings thought to have arrived?
    Unreported Heritage News: Did the Scots visit Iceland? New research reveals island inhabited 70 years before Vikings thought to have arrived

    60% of Icelandic Women are of Scots descent
    Icelandic Women are of Scots descent


    Most Icelanders are descendants of Norwegian settlers and Celts from Ireland and Scotland, brought over as slaves during the age of settlement.
    Demographics of Iceland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Icelanders have always considered sagas to be the most reliable source of information about their history. One class of sagas, known as the Saga of the Icelanders, tells almost exclusively about the earliest settlers in Iceland, from the time A.D. 870 until the conversion to Christianity in A.D. 1000. According to the sagas, most settlers were established families who left Norway rather than submit to the growing power of the king. But the sagas also shed light on the Celtic admixture in the Icelandic settlement. As a literary form, the sagas have their closest parallels to Irish literature, indicating that the impetus for writing sagas may have been inspired by Celtic traditions.
    Iceland Sagas

    Vikings in Wales
    Vikings in Wales and their influence

    Viking Answer Lady Webpage - Norse Raids and Settlement in Wales

    So as you can read there is a connection between the Celtic and the Vikings.

    What about a connection between the Celtic and the Vikings and the Maori?
    what do they have in common?



    To the left is seen a belt buckle, retrieved from a Viking burial ship at Sutton Hoo in England. To New Zealanders and others of the South Pacific Islands, the face is very recognisable as "Tiki" or "Rongo". He is seen to be wearing the "high hat",
    Viking Navigation and Ancient Swedish Measurements

    Viking shell horn

    snail shell horn definition | English definition dictionary | Reverso Collins

     Maori also made snail shell horns/trumpets.
    A shell trumpet - Shellfish - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand



    The putatara is a conch shell trumpet. These instruments were used for a variety of roles from signalling to ceremonial uses.Maori legend has it that when Tane descended from the heavens carrying the 3 baskets of knowledge gifted from his father Rangi, he left behind a putatara as a koha (gift).The two main components are shell and wood. The shell represents Tangaroa (God of the ocean) and the wood, Tane Mahuta (God of the forest). Putatara form an important part of Maori practises and beliefs
    Maori carvings, greenstone, corporate gifts and souvenirs - Aotearoa Arts Limited - Rotorua, New Zealand






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    Post Re: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    Paakehakeha
    Gods of the ocean who had the forms of fish and man
    Patupaiarehe
    Beings with fair skin and hair who gave people the secret of fishing with nets
    Pakepakeha
    Mythical, human like being, with fair skin and hair who possessed canoes made of reeds which changed magically into sailing vessels
    Pakeha
    Originally referring to the early European settlers of New Zealand
    Pakeha, its origin and meaning


    [QUOTE]
    The origins of the word Pākehā are unknown, although the most likely sources are the words pākehakeha or pakepakehā, which refer to mythical human-like creatures, with fair skin and hair, sometimes described as having come from the sea.[9] When Europeans first arrived they rowed to shore in longboats, facing backwards while rowing the boats to shore. In traditional Māori canoes or "waka", paddlers face the direction of travel. This is supposed to have led to the belief that the sailors were supernatural beings.
    In her book The Trial of the Cannibal Dog: The Remarkable Story of Captain Cook's Encounters in the South Seas, historian Anne Salmond wrote that tribal traditions held that Toiroa , a tohunga from Mahia, had predicted the coming of the Europeans. He said "ko te pakerewha", meaning "it is the pakerewha", red and white strangers[/QUOTE]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C4%81keh%C4%81

    In Māori mythology, a race of pale spirit beings, the tūrehu, or pakepakehā live in the forests and mountain tops and are sometimes hostile to humans.
    The Turehu, also referred to as Patupaiarehe, Ngati Hotu and the Urukehu (red heads), were resident in New Zealand when the Maori first landed.These pre-Maori people, were sometimes described as fair complexioned, with red or blond hair and blue eyes and pakepakehā is considered one of the possible sources of the Māori word pākehā - used to refer to Europeans.
    The fierce Maori drove the Turehu away from their traditional areas, and the Turehu/Urukehu were finally wiped out or dispersed after a last stand in the Waikato region of North Island. Many Maori today can claim some Turehu descent and reddish hair infrequently appears among Maori to this day.
    According to a story from the Ngāti Kahu tribe of the far north of the North Island of New Zealand, the Turehu live in Rangiawhiao. After the Turehu were tricked by Kahukura into showing him how fishing nets were made, some traveled to the Taranaki district in the west of the North Island of New Zealand while the others remained in Rangiawhiao but moved inland. And there they remain to this day.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turehu
    Celts
    Druids called their mother goddess Tara.
    Finns
    An ancient legend speaks of Tar, the Women of Wisdom
    The Battle of Tara took place in medieval
    Ireland in 980. On one side there was a Norse army from Dublin supported by troops from the Hebrides and commanded by Olaf Cuaran
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Tara_(Ireland)

    The Hill of Tara (
    Irish Temair na , "Hill of the Kings"), located near the River Boyne, is an archaeological complex that runs between Navan and Dunshaughlin in County Meath, Leinster, Ireland.
    Hill of Tara - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Tara Hill, County Wexford - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Irish Gaelic: refers to the Hill of Tara, or Teamhair na Rí, the seat of the kings of Ireland from neolithic times (c. 5000 BC) to the 6th century or later. With this reference, Tara is taken to mean "Queen"
    Tara (name) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    The name Tara is a baby girl name. The name Tara comes from the Irish origin. In Irish The meaning of the name Tara is: Where the kings met. Also Tara's Halls, where ancient Bards sang deeds of Irish heroes. The ruins of the Halls are on the hill of Tara, meaning crag or tower.
    Meaning of Tara - Irish baby name

    The Maori called it Mount Taranaki meaning shining mountain peak
    Taranaki

    original Maori name of Taranaki (meaning 'bare peak'), ...
    http://thenewzealandsite.com/mt-taranaki/

    tara means "mountain peak".
    "Naki" is thought to come from ngaki, meaning "shining"—a reference to the winter, snow-clad, nature of the upper slopes
    http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Mount_Taranaki

    Maori oral traditions clearly state that, upon arrival in New Zealand, Maori found that there was a large, well-established population already living in the country. The inhabitants were described as having skin complexion that was white to light-ruddy, with eye colours from blue to green to darker tints. Their hair colours ranged from white and dull-golden, with red being predominant in the general population. There were also shades of brown through to black and braided samples of this multi-coloured hair (taken from the Waitakere rock shelters) used to be on display at Auckland War Memorial Museum.
    In physical stature most groups were about the same height as Maori, but there was one widely dispersed group described as being considerably smaller (white pygmies) with fine, childlike features, white-golden hair and large watery blue-green eyes. Around Port Waikato and distributed up the West Coast beyond the Hokianga Harbour to Mitimiti was yet another group who were very tall, achieving an average adult height of around 7-feet. Since early colonial times the skeletal remains of these people have been continuously observed as trussed, sitting position burials in coastal sand dunes or laid-out horizontally in caves.

    Maori used umbrella terms like Patu-paiarehe, Turehu and Pakepakeha as names for these earlier inhabitants, but each Maori tribe developed their own regional names, such as Ngati Kura, Ngati Korakorako and Ngati Turehu for the Patu-paiarehe tribes in the Rotorua lakes district of the central North Island. The last, intact surviving tribe was the Ngati Hotu who lived in Hawkes Bay district and later around Lake Taupo, until their defeat in the Battle of the Five Forts.
    The Maori term, Pakeha, later used to describe white colonial Europeans, was derived from the ancient name Pakepakeha used to describe the former white population. Pocket groups of these first inhabitants survived into the 20th century and are well-remembered by old-timers as the red headed, freckle-faced Maoris or waka blonds
    In consideration of ancient Welsh/ Gaelic/ Breton/ Khumri variations on "Tara" we have the following:
    "Taran" means "thunder" in Welsh/ Breton/ Khumri.The word "Tardd" would mean "breaking out".


    "Tartar" means noise or clamour in Irish/ Gaelic.


    Each of these descriptions in Welsh/ Khumri or Irish/ Gaelic migrated to Wales and Ireland via Scandinavia and Germany, where "Thor", meaning literally"thunder", was the pre-eminent Deity and created great thunder claps by crashing two rams heads together.


    The Continental European Celts called their God, "Taranis" (the thunderer) and he bore that name in France and Spain amongst the Druids, as well as, seemingly, Celtic countries like Germany, Switzerland and Yugoslavia further east. The name Taranis derives from the Celtic (or Indo-European) root "Taran" meaning "thunderer or thunder" and he was associated with Jupiter.


    Another variation on the name was "Taranucnus" or "Taranus"...used in Britain. Taranaich (which is very close in pronunciation to Taranaki) is the Scot/ Pict/ Gaelic god of thunder & lightning. His name was derived from the Gaelic word tarnach or tarna, ‘thunder’. His attribute was the spoked wheel. Taranis, Taran, Taranus, Taranucus, Taranucnus, Taranaich all relate to "Thunderer", the Celtic thunder god and ‘god of heaven’. His symbol was the spoked wheel and a stylized spiral representing lightning. The wheel was normally considered to be a sun symbol, but could also be associated with the thunder god's chariot rumbling across the sky.

    The Celtic tribes, Turones, Turoni, Taurini, venerated the deity Taranucus/ Taranaich, which is not a tremendous departure from saying that the Turehu of ancient New Zealand lived in the foothills of Mt, Taranaki. A pre-Maori white tribe was called the Turehu.


    The Maori name for the God of thunder and lightning is Tawhaki, which might explain how the second half of "Taran-aki" (aki) became predominant in the finalised nomenclature that described this God regionally..

    According to the Roman poet Lucan, Taranis was appeased by burning (Bellum civile or Pharsalia I, 422-465).
    This way of describing Mount Taranaki's name, which is the result of a more direct route of migration and influx of European cultural idiosyncrasies from Britain and Continental Europe to New Zealand, is very apt. It describes a thunder and lightning god (inseparable elements) that is appeased by fire. Again the god is associated with one of the great lights in the firmament (Jupiter). This name (Taranis/ Taranucus/ Taranaich) and description of the god's attributes fit the profile of "an active "VOLCANO".
    The name "Taranaki" is found in the Waitakere Ranges of Northern New Zealand. Also, Wellington Harbour adjacent to New Zealand's capital city used to be called "Tara" as the Maori placename for the area. The ancient name "Tara" is used prolifically all over Ireland in many placenames.
    In correspondence with a lady in Britain , I was told that in the Welsh language the term for "royal dog" is rendered "Cu-ri", whereas in the Maori language it is "Kuri", a parallel that my correspondent found "Cu-ri-ous". She also pointed out that the ancient Welsh called themselves "Cu-m-ri".




    In the picture to the upper left is shown a statuette, found in France, which depicts the ancient god Taranis and his identifying elements. These are:
    1. The bolt of lightening that he holds in his right hand.
    2. His bag and double spiral ringlets (enhanced in yellow for clarity). The spiral, in the Maori language, is called a Koru, hence the name "Koru PA" in New Zealand, where the river spirals around a defensive enclosure (fortress) peninsula.
    3. The thunder wheel.
    In the picture to the lower left is shown a "cross", known as the "Cross of Taranis" (Croix de Taranis). In pre-Christian France (Gaul) the spoked "thunder wheel" of Taranis was often represented as a "cross".
    In the picture to the right is shown Curator of the Dargaville Maritime Museum, Noel Hilliam, holding an ancient totem (Nui pole), which was retrieved from wetlands in the north of New Zealand. The totem has, carved into it, all of the elements associated with Taranis, the Thunderer. These are:
    1. The spiral lightening bolt of Taranis carved very precisely to original and authentic form.
    2. The double spiral ringlets of Taranis, which are depicted as a large spiral reducing to a small spiral (Koru).
    3. The "Cross" of Taranis, which represented the "thunder wheel". This is again shown at the bottom of the totem (3B).
    The Celtic god Taranucus/ Taranaich is associated with the measurement of time and has at his side the “Wheel of the Seasons”.
    Patu-paiarehe is the name applied by the Maoris to the mysterious forest dwelling race. An atmosphere of mysticism surrounds Maori references to these elusive tribes of the mountains and the bush....The Patu-paiarehe were for the most part of much lighter complexion than the Maoris...their hair was of a dull golden or reddish hue, “uru-kehu”, as is sometimes seen amongst the Maoris of today...This class of folk-tales no doubt originated in part in the actual existence of numerous tribes of aborigines. This immeasurably ancient light haired people left a strain of uru-kehu in most ancient tribes’ (see The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 1921, volume 30, pp. 96-102, 142-151, article by James Cowan).
    Commenting on a later era, Cowan interviewed an old Maori elder who spoke of the Patu-paiarehe of Mt. Ngongataha, Rotorua District. This partially wooded area rising above the south-west shore of Lake Rotorua was the main regional settlement of the Patu-paiarehe, whom the old elder called, Ngati-Hua (hua means “bastard” in Maori). The old elder described the former residents in the following way:
    ‘The complexion of most of them was kiri puwhero (reddish skin) and their hair had a reddish or golden tinge we call uru-kehu. Some had black eyes, some blue like Europeans. Some of their women were very beautiful, very fair of complexion, with shining fair hair...’
    Cowan was told by other Maori elders of the district that, many generations previously, the Maoris set fire to the fern and forest on the slopes of the mountain, causing much anguish to the Patu-paiarehe tribe and most of them departed northward.
    It’s interesting to note that many very ornate little gable roofed, Saxon-style pataka buildings, a few of which are now preserved in the Auckland War Memorial Museum or at Te Papa Museum in Wellington, were seen abandoned and deteriorating on Mt. Ngongataha, by early colonial observers. These ornate structures were probably built for and by the very small white-pygmy people, as the doorways are tiny. Likewise, many gateways to villages had to be raised and widened in order to accommodate latter-era Maori occupiers.
    Photo courtesy of Rob Graham - Wanganui Photo News.
    The coffins seen above were photographed in 1919 high up a cliff-face at a very remote part of New Zealand. Each coffin was hewn-out by stone tools from a single log, like a dugout canoe (photo: courtesy of Rob Graham).
    These coffins were not planked or made from sawn timbers, as one would expect colonial-European coffins to be fabricated at any point during the colonial era. The lids were also hewn from a single, thick plank, with the edge lip (used for locking the lid firmly onto the coffin box) laboriously carved by scalloping out the central region. The cultural habit of carving coffins in this manner, as single hewn pieces, is reminiscent of the mummy-boards of Egypt, which fully encased the body of the deceased. One skeleton lies on what appears to have been the base of an old canoe.

    These skeletons display recognisable European physiology. They were already very old when found in isolated country, far from the consecrated ground of a churchyard. The deceased people were, undoubtedly, the white Ngati Hotu, known in local Maori and European folklore to have hidden from the cannibals for centuries in this inhospitable region. The location was less than 50-miles further into the rugged badlands interior from where the last of the Ngati Hotu tribe were defeated and cannibalised in the “Battle of the Five Forts” at Pukekaikiore (hill of the meal of rats).
    A blow-up of the picture positively shows a side view of a jaw (mandible) adjacent to the canoe base, which is not the Maori-Polynesian rocker jaw with a continuous downwards curve on the lower border. Further to that, the eye sockets of these people are squarish, the nose openings pyramidal, the faces long and narrow (dolicephalic skull type) and the craniums very round. The face line from the jaw past the nose and brow is consistent with the European facial profile, rather than the very flat face of the Maori.
    Houghton writes:
    'When the Polynesian skull is placed beside that of a European, or any other race, differences can be seen. The Polynesian head, particularly of the male, is more angular, appearing distinctly pentagonal from above or behind, compared with the rounder contour of the European. The region of the temples is particularly flat in the Polynesian, and the bridges of bone known as the zygomatic arches stand well clear of the crainial contour, being visible from above. In the heads of most races these arches are usually concealed by the cranial contour in this view.
    Viewed from the front the face appears flat-sided with the cheekbone turning back at right angles to the facial surface. Viewed from the side the face of the Polynesian appears flat, vertical in profile, and not usually with any projection of the front teeth and their supporting bone as commonly seen in Negroes, in whom also the point of the chin may be set back so that the whole of the mid-face appears to project forward. The vault of the Polynesian cranium is high. And from the side view is seen what is probably the most distinctive Polynesian feature of all, the shape of the mandible. The lower border of this bone shows a continuous and marked convex curve from front to back This means that when the isolated bone is placed on a flat surface it makes contact at only two points, and therefore rocks when disturbed. This has given rise to the term familiar to Oceanic anthropologists as describing the Polynesian mandible - the rocker jaw.'
    (See The First New Zealanders, pp. 41-44, with illustrations).
    In 2004, Member of Parliament, the Hon. Chris Carter, was asked, under an “official information” request, how many archaeological “embargoes” were presently in place. He forwarded a written response that there were 105 current embargoes, mostly concerning burial sites. It was stated that “DOC administers the New Zealand Archaeological Associations Central file ...of which, 105 ... were classified as sensitive records”. The response stated: “File keepers may create sensitive files ....if this is requested by the site recorder...”
    For about 12-years during the mid 1860’s-70’s Robertson’s Mill in Onehunga, Auckland ground up tens of thousands of Patu-paiarehe skeletons from the Auckland and Northland burial caves to make fertiliser. Maori leaders had told Governor Bowen at Te Kopuru in 1869, ‘Do with them what you wish for these are not our people’ (Source: Noel Hilliam, former Curator of the Dargaville Maritime Museum).
    This statement to Governor Bowen parallels what historian/ anthropologist Edward Tregear heard and wrote:

    “The Maoris used to pay great respect to the bones of their dead, yet here and there may be found among sandhills, etc., human remains uncovered by the wind, and of these no tradition remains, as there would certainly be if the relics were those of ancestors. The natives say, “These are the bones of strangers.” So also mortuary-caves are found concerning the contents of which the Maoris make the same remark, and regard them with indifference” (See: The Maori Race, pp. 562-563).
    Old Maori skeletons get new home
    24 September 2005
    By RICHARD WOOD
    The remains of 12 skeletons in a formal pre-European Maori urupa (cemetery) unearthed by contractors on a Manutahi farm, have been removed and re-interred at Manutahi Marae by kaumatua of the Ngati Pakakohe iwi.

    No official comment could be obtained from Pakakohe, but tribal members told the Taranaki Daily News the blessing and reinterrment happened on Tuesday.

    These sources were not comfortable with the removal of the bones.
    They said the remains should possibly have been left where they were found.
    The principal South Taranaki iwi, Ngati Ruanui, was originally called in by the police after the remains were disturbed during land contouring earthworks for oil exploration company Swift Energy NZ Ltd, on September 13.
    Ngati Ruanui chairman Syd Kahu, asked for an update this week, said: "I have handed it all over to Pakakohe, that's all I have to say."
    Allan Cunningham, the new Swift CEO said nothing further was being done at the site "until Ngati Ruanui decide to allow it. They may do as they see fit, that's our position. There has been a limited amount of fill work done where the remains were found."
    Michael Taylor, a private archaeologist from Archaeology North, Wanganui, was called in by the NZ Historic Places Trust to assess the discovery but did no excavation.
    He said the urupa "definitely pre-dates European settlement due to the style of burial, state of the bones and the presence of what may have been woven flax. Something like this is a significant discovery because it is an unrecorded formal burial site. I've been in archaeology for over 20 years and this is the first time I have seen anything like this."
    Since the find, a bit more evidence has filtered through from private sources. This tells us:
    1. The bones of each skeleton unearthed were in woven bags, but the material was not flax.

    2. The burial site was a formally organised location, totally unknown to the local iwi by their own admission. It's evident that they had no history of burials at this location and in this unique manner. The remains were of an earlier, ancient people, who had no affiliation with the local iwi now occupying the region.

    3. The final burial had occurred in swamp or bog land. Burying the dead in watery graves, such as swamps or bogs was sometimes practiced by ancient Europeans.

    4. No photography of the skeletal remains recovered at the Manutahu farm was permitted.

    5. No forensic analysis to determine the physical anthropology or ethnicity of the skeletal remains was permitted, although in the majority of cases the remains were removed from the wet burial enviroment intact within the woven bags and all physical materials were in a high state of preservation. These were perfect specimens for profound scientific analysis.
    The remains, which were undoubtedly pre-Maori or of ancient Patu-paiarehe-European ethnicity have, as per usual, been whisked away and destroyed, this time at Manutahi PA located between Hawera and Patea. This "Dark Ages" practice of suppressing scientific investigation ensures that we never learn the truth about our long-term history of New Zealand. Moreover, the progeny of those who annihilated the earlier inhabitants of New Zealand are aided and abetted by the authorities in keeping knowledge concerning the earliest New Zealanders a deep, dark secret.
    Europeans have a right to be consulted regarding the fate of the remains of their ancient cousin peoples. This is yet another breach of, what should be, mutual respect for ethnic rights.
    Thor in the South Pacific

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    Post Re: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    Fairy Folk Tales of the Maori — Introduction — Maori Legends of the “Patu-paiarehe.”


    Patu-paiarehe, the mysterious wild men of the mountains, the strange spirits that haunt great pools at river-sources, and streams and lakes.


    This name Patu-paiarehe is the term applied by the Maori to the mysterious forest-dwelling people who for want of a more exact term may be described as the fairies of New Zealand. They are spoken of as an iwi-atua, a race of supernatural beings, and they are accredited with some of the marvellous powers attributed to the world of faerie in many other parts of the globe. Some folk-tales of the Maori describe them as little people, but the native fancy does not usually picture them the tiny elves common to the old-world fairydom. Most of the legends I have gathered give them the ordinary stature of mortals, while at the same time investing them with some of the characteristics of the enchanted tribes of other lands
    The Patu-paiarehe were for the most part of much lighter complexion than the Maori; their hair was of the dull golden or reddish hue “uru-kehu,” such as is sometimes seen among the Maoris of to-day. They inhabited the remote parts of the wooded ranges, preferring the highest peaks such as Hihikiwi, on Mount Pirongia, and the summit of Te Aroha. They ventured out only by night and on days of heavy clouds and fog. They lived on forest foods, but sometimes they resorted to the shores of sea and lake for fish.

    They were greatly skilled in all manner of enchantments and magic, and they often employed these arts of gramarie to bewilder and terrify the iwi Maori.
    The Patu-paiarehe, in a number of these fairy tales, constituted themselves the guardians of sacred places and visited their displeasure on those who neglected the rites for the propitiation of the forest deities.
    Many of them were reddish-haired, with fairer complexions than those of the Maori; the remnants of an immeasurably ancient fair-haired people who have left a strain of uru-kehu in most Maori tribes. As in the case of the ancient Picts (whence the word “pixy”), who were driven to take refuge in the caves and mountains of Scotland and Wales and the Peak of Derbyshire, the forest-dwelling refugees of New Zealand gradually became to the more powerful race an enchanted wizardly tribe, possessed of powers of transformation and of becoming invisible at will. The Patu-paiarehe were, as a rule, shy and peace-loving. The fiercer foresters, the Maero of legend, were not unlike the Fynnoderee of Manx country tales who played malevolent tricks on the farmer folk.

    Patu-paiarehe legendry in the North Island, so far as my enquiries go, is associated chiefly with the forested peaks of the Waikato-Waipa basin, the Cape Colville-Te Aroha range, and the hills about Lake Rotorua. That beautiful mountain Kake-puku, in the Waipa Valley, was a fairy resort; there is a deep wooded valley on the western side beloved of the Patu-paiarehe from Pirongia mountain. They did not venture to other parts of the mountain because they sometimes saw the Maori fires burning on the summit and on the eastern and northern sides.
    Fairy Folk Tales of the Maori — Introduction — Maori Legends of the “Patu-paiarehe.” | NZETC

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    Post Re: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    More from : Fairy Folk Tales of the Maori — Introduction — Maori Legends of the “Patu-paiarehe.”


    On the upper part of the Waitemata, or Auckland Harbour, there is a long black reef of lava, a flow from the ancient volcano Owairaka (Mount Albert) which extends from the southern side almost halfway across the harbour, towards Kauri Point. It is called by the Maoris Toka-roa, or “Long Reef.” Legend attributes to it a fairy origin. It was built by the Patu-paiarehe in a single night in an endeavour to make a bridge across the Waitemata. They were less fortunate, however, than the fairies of Irish legend who built a road across the bog of Lamrach for Mider their king. Daylight interrupted the labours of the Patu-paiarehe, and so the wonderful bridge was not finished
    There are many points of likeness between the Maori traditional accounts of the Patu-paiarehe and kindred beings and the fairies of Irish folk-talk. Lady Gregory, in her “Visions and Beliefs in the West of Ireland” (1920), describes the popular belief in the existence of the Sidhe, a fairy people fond of old forts. A fairy's voice is sometimes heard keening, a portent. There are fairy pipers among the Sidhe, making music, “the grandest I ever heard,” as one of the old people said. The Maori fairies, similarly, were much given to playing on the flute, the koauau and putorino, “the sweetest music ever heard,” says the Maori.
    Fairy Folk Tales of the Maori — Introduction — Maori Legends of the “Patu-paiarehe.” | NZETC


    The Patupairehe (or Patu Paiarehe) were fair-skinned fairies found in Māori lore.

    Folklore and fairy tales of the Canterbury Māori, as told by Taare Te Maiharoa.
    Maori folk tales of the Port Hills, Canterbury, New Zealand, James CowanHistory as told by Hone Taare Tikao and Tame Kirini (T. E. Green) to the author on: Ch. 1: The story of the rocks (Port Hills); Ch. 2: Port Hills and their names; Ch. 3: Round the Sugarloaf; Ch. 4: Rapaki; Ch. 5: Te Ahi a Tamatea; Ch. 6: Hills of Faery (Fairies).South Island Maori Myths and Legends - Maori - Christchurch City Libraries

    He relied on the colour of his skin, which was almost as light as that of the fairies, to save him from discovery. "Let down the net in the sea at Rangiaowhia," they cried, "and haul it in at Mamaku."
    Immediately the fairies dropped the net and began to collect the fish. But instead of sorting them into equal piles, one for each fisherman present, as men do, they rushed about, each one grabbing the best fish for himself
    Thus Kahukura acquired the first fishing net, and from a close study of it he soon discovered how the fairy fishermen had woven it. This knowledge he passed on to his son, and soon it had spread to every part of New Zealand. The Maori people have been using fishing nets ever since.
    New Zealand - Some Maori Legends


    The Tylwyth Teg (Welsh: "the Fair Folk") is the common term in Wales for fairies. Tylwyth Teg, described as ethereal, beautiful and fair-haired, dwelt in a number of places in Wales as genii loci similar to Greek nymphs, Norse norns or Irish sidhe. Such places included the lake Llyn y Fan Fach. Tylwyth Teg had Fairy paths upon which it was dangerous for a mortal to walk.
    Tylwyth Teg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    Writing in the Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol. 2 (1893) 63, Archdeacon W. L. Williams expressed the view3 that the term was derived from pakepakeha “imaginary beings of evil4 influence, more commonly known as patupaiarehe; said to be like men, with fair skins.” Williams adds (first theory): “The use certainly did not originate with any of the Ngatikahungunu tribes, who regarded it as a name used by the white people for themselves. The Ngaitahu and others in the South Island used the expression tangata pora (or ship-men) instead; and this expression had not been superseded a few years ago, and perhaps has not yet been entirely superseded
    Second theory): In the Journal of the Polynesian Society, 3 (1894) 336, Hoani Nahe hazards that pakeha “is derived from ‘the gods of the sea,’ the names for which are Atua, Tupua, Pakehakeha, Marakihau and Taewa”. The translator, S. Percy Smith, adds the footnote: “All of these names have been applied to Europeans, besides others such as Piharoa, Urekihau, Maitai, etc.”
    In his Maori Comparative Dictionary (1891), Edward Tregear gives the meanings “a foreigner, one not of the Maori race”. He remarks that pakeha, a European, is given by Dumont d'Urville in his Voyage au Pole Sud, p. 164, as used in the Mangarevan dialect. No personal opinion is given on whether the Maori use was derived from pakepakeha or not, although he refers the investigator to the latter term, and notes that Mr. John White, author of Ancient History of the Maoris (1887-90), “considers that pakeha, a foreigner, a European, originally meant “fairy”, and states that on the white man first landing, sugar was called fairy-sand, etc.”
    Journal of the Polynesian Society: Origins Of The Words Pakeha And Maori, By Sidney J. Baker, P 223-231

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    Post Re: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    Now listen. When the migration arrived here they found people living in the land – Ngati Kura, Ngati Korakorako and Ngati Turehu, all hapu or sub-tribes of the people called Patupaiarehe. The chiefs of this people were named Tahurangi, Whanawhana, Nukupori, Tuku, Ripiroaitu, Tapu-te-uru and Te Rangipouri. The dwelling places of these people were on the sharp peaks of the high mountains – those in the district of Hauraki (Thames) are Moehau mountain (Cape Colville), Motutere (Castle Hill, Coromandel), Maumaupaki, Whakairi, Kaitarakihi, Te Koronga, Horehore, Whakaperu, Te Aroha-a-uta, Te Aroha-a-tai, and lastly Pirongia, at Waikato. The pa, villages, and houses of this people are not visible, nor actually to be seen by mortal (Tangata Maori) eyes – that is, their actual forms. But sometimes some forms are seen, though not actually known to be these people … Sometimes this people is met with by the Maori people in the forests, and they are heard conversing and calling out, as they pass along, but at the same time they never meet face to face, or so that they mutually see one another, but the voices are heard in conversation or shouting, but the people are never actually seen.
    On some occasions also, during the night, they are heard paddling their canoes … At such times are heard these questions: ‘What is it?’ ‘Who are the people who were heard urging forward their canoes on the sea during the night?’ or, ‘Who were heard conversing and shouting in the forest?’ The answer would be as follows: ‘They were not Tangata Maori, they were atua, Patupaiarehe, Turehu, or Korakorako

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    Post Re: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    Ranginui (the sky) and Papatūānuku (the earth), who are the parents of Tāne, the progenitor of humankind. Some versions say that mankind descends from Tūmatauenga, another child of earth and sky.
    Tāne is a celebrated figure. Among his many feats was the creation of a woman from the soil at Kurawaka. Her name was Hineahuone (the female element who comes from the soil). Hineahuone and Tāne had a daughter named Hinetītama, who also became known as Hinenui-i-te-pō. As Hinetītama, she became the custodian of the threshold between night and day, darkness and light. Hine is seen both in the morning with the birth of sunlight, and in the evening with the setting sun. It is said that these are the ancestors of human kind.
    First peoples in M?ori tradition - T?ne, Hineahuone and Hine - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

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    Māui is the great trickster hero of Polynesian mythology. Much pre-European Polynesian history is related to this inventive character. Many of the stories are legendary – the theft of fire, the capture of the sun, the pursuit of immortality, the descent into the underworld in search of his father.
    A central story about Māui tells of how he fished up the North Island of New Zealand. The South Island is referred to as Te Waka-a-Māui, or Māui’s canoe. Rakiura (Stewart Island) is the canoe’s anchor stone and it is said that Māui stood at the peninsula at Kaikōura while he hauled up his prized catch.
    Basis for settlement

    Such events are of great importance in the world view these traditions express. The tribal traditions which cite descent from or a relationship with Māui provide a basis for settlement in New Zealand. Descent from Māui is a starting point for tribal tenure of the land.
    Māui and his fish

    The following story was written by the Ngāti Porou tohunga, Mohi Ruatapu. It begins with Māui fetching the jawbone of his grandmother Muri-ranga-whenua to use as a fish hook. He then goes fishing with his reluctant older brothers


    First peoples in M?ori tradition - M?ui - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

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    Post Re: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    The website's name "Ancient Celtic New Zealand" is taken from the book by Martin Doutré.
    www.celticnz.co.nz/


    Martin Doutre's Ancient Celtic New Zealand is a very important examination of the evidence for an advanced ancient civilization that understood phi, pi, ...
    www.amazon.com/...Celtic...Martin-Doutre/dp/0473053675

    Red Ice Creations Radio - Martin Doutré - Ancient Celtic New Zealand

    Taine Rory Mhor ) Taine Ruaridh Mhor (the big cattle farmer) was delivered by three seagoing longships (birlinns?) to NZ in the 12th Century, with 95 of his family and kinfolk and followers. And sons Rory and Ruaridh. It was deliberate but not by choice. Banishment was not an uncommon feature of the times and in this case the term was for seven generations after he had been incacerated in a dungeon for three years already by his friend King Alexander I of Scotland (reigned 1107-1124AD). Both Islands of New Zealand were chosen because one of the criteria was that the land for the banishment had to be uninhabited at the time (? this seems strange). After 160 years (7 + 1 generations), Scots/Vikings (there were three ships, two of whose captains were Johansen and Christiansen - though the names are Nordic Scandinavian they were probably based in the Firth of Forth) were requested by folk in Scotland to call and see if any of Taine's people had survived. This would have been probably just after the reign of King Alexander III of Scotland (reigned 1249-1286) and during the reign of Edward I of England. He invaded Scotland in 1296. This was a turbulent time in Scotland. It was the time of Wallace, of Bruce, the battles of Stirling Bridge and Falkirk. The execution of Wallace and eventually the Coronation of Robert the Bruce and leading up to the battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Times perhaps when no-one had the time or resources to maintain communication with kinfolk a world away. So back to the story.
    Men in Taine's lineage were often well over 7 foot tall and generally had red hair, blue eyes and fair complexions. They had been provided with a very small number of sheep and cattle, and enough provisions to last three months, but no tools. Why such treatment was metted out remains the knowledge of modern descendants. The survival of Taine's group was initially in their own hands and by the will of God. Their existence was meagre. Eventually some tools were obtained by trade with visiting Portuguese, and the colony grew. It is said Taine was responsible for introducing particular trees and that there may be connection between Taine and "Tane" the name used by Maoris for the God of the forest. Taine in old Gaelic is apparently pronounced the same as Tane in Maori.

    New Zealand, A Celtic country

    http://www.kilts.co.nz/macfarlane.htm

    Farlane just simply "Far Land"?
    The Clan of "Sons of the Far Land"(?).

    http://www.kilts.co.nz/MITLINK3.HTM


    Historical Rocks on the Raglan coastline
    http://www.kilts.co.nz/raglan_rocks.htm

    The Case for Prehistoric Civilisations in New Zealand

    For many years a small but dedicated group of archaeologists and researchers have been exploring one of New Zealand’s most taboo subjects – the question of whether or not settlements existed in New Zealand prior to the arrival of the “first canoes” of the Maori. While thanks in part to their work, the fact that New Zealand was populated prior to the arrival of Maori settlers has now been well established (despite the reluctance of some people to acknowledge it), the discovery in 1874 of an ancient carved tree stump is potentially the most important archeological “anomaly”ever found in this country.

    But most intriguingly, the story of the Waitaha Nation also contains reference to other people living in New Zealand before their arrival.



    Read further:
    http://uncensored.co.nz/archives/200...n-new-zealand/

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    Post Re: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    The"Waitapu"
    standing stone circle
    Why are there typical, megalithic British, standing stone observatories being found all over New Zealand and what can the Waitapu observatory tell us about the former, pre-Polynesian inhabitants of the South Pacific?




    Why has the New Zealand "Department of Conservation" been suppressing knowledge of a huge, pre-Polynesian, stacked stone city in the Waipoua Forest of Northern New Zealand and why was the archaeological report to be withheld from the public for 75 years? (link to 98K .jpg file of copy of official embargo)


    Ancient
    New Zealand Domiciles
    Why are there thousands of mysterious stone heaps dotting the forest floors of New Zealand and why do many of them still show intricate, "fitted stone" features? Are these collapsed megalithic British type "Beehive Houses? Why are Maori Pa forts an exact duplication of pre-Celtic hill forts



    The Ancient Population Whose bones truly lie in the burial caves throughout the length and breadth of New Zealand and why has there been a concerted effort to either hide or destroy skeletal evidence?



    The Mysterious Crosshouse at Miringa Te Kakara
    How do the geometric principles and design features of this mysterious structure show it to contain Northern Hemisphere, astronomical and calendar codes and why was it built to exactly 1/2 the diameter of the Sarsen circle at Stonehenge?



    Another look at Si'nim, Greenstone and problem artefacts Where was the forgotten and remote land of Si'nim? How did Polynesians, without access to metal tools, fashion and shape incredibly hard greenstone or intricately carve wood in distinctly pre-Celtic patterns and styles?



    NZ Connections

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    Post Re: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    European woman 'arrived in New Zealand before Captain Cook'




    MYSTERY: A skull found on the banks of a Wairarapa river has turned out to be a Caucasian woman who died about 100 years before the area was settled by Europeans.


    View ancient sites near Hamilton
    Revisit Ancient Celtic / Viking New Zealand (?).

    5 Aug 2008 ... The discovery of a European skull dating back more than 260 years


    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worl...tain-Cook.html

    Did the Vikings sail all the way to New Zealand?

    It is not until recent years they have received full acceptance that the Norwegian Vikings settled in North America. What if they sailed even further? In New Zealand, on the other side of the world, is the accepted theory that the Polynesian Maoris were the first to settle in the country, but there are reports that say that the Norwegian Vikings got there before them!

    Thor Heyerdahl summed up his theory that the oceans on our planet in the distant past was the roads that bound the different peoples together - not separated them. We learn eventually how right he had. Throughout the world we find signs that the ancient Egyptians, the Portuguese and the Phoenicians sailed across the oceans, and even if many archaeologists still resist anything that could upset the established theories, so the time is ripe for a thorough review of migration theories and traffic between continents.
    The Norwegian Vikings ravaged the British islands and discovered America is something everyone who has had history in school knows, but there are indications that they sailed farther than we are aware of - or willing to accept. If you are brave enough you can actually ask about the Vikings sailed all the world's oceans and visited all the continents on our planet!

    Arabic Sultan
    Old Arab sources say the Vikings in their thousands - in the fleets of over 100 Viking - ravaged the Mediterranean region on 8-900s, and that they also attacked areas in North Africa. Yes, a bunch of Vikings were bodyguards of an Arab sultan, and he helped to build ships for a fleet that sailed 998 years to India and Indonesia. It was the Vikings reportedly sent further south in some of the ships, so that the sultan in this way got rid of their somewhat ferocious and unruly mercenaries.
    Some scientists believe that the Vikings used the Canary Islands as a support point for its raids in the Mediterranean and North Africa. It is found skipsdel similar to Viking ships strakes, and a C14 dating show to the year 1082, plus / minus 60 years. Several anthropologists believe that the three peoples lived in the Canary Islands through the earliest times, including a leading layer of a Nordic racial type ".

    Kon-Tiki
    Could it be possible that some Vikings headed southwest from the Canary Islands, followed the trade winds, and came to South America?
    In Paraguay, there innrissinger of 61 stones to be identified as the runes from the Viking era, and some researchers argue that the Vikings took their way through Brazil to the top Tiahuanaco in Bolivia - high in the Andes! It is in the ruined city of Tiahuanaco Puma Punku is, with its huge stone slabs and unexplained inscriptions reminiscent of Viking runes. It was in Tiahuanaco the Kon-Tiki (also called Viracocha), a hvithudet, bearded priest in a long white robe, according to legend lived - until he and his men were forced by a warlike leader to set sail across the Pacific on rafts . It was this story that inspired Thor Heyerdahl to put on the Kon-Tiki expedition to prove that the people on the South Sea Islands could have come from South America!
    There are countless stories in the islands of Sydhavet about high hvithudete and bearded gods, who visited the islands - often popped up in the ship which had large white sail. As the god Løno in Hawaii. We have previously written about the Norwegian Viking Ganger-Rolv that disappeared from the European battlefield in 25 years - after he went to visit a brother in the Hebrides. Viking giant went under a different name in Europe: Rollo. A name that may be a Løno Polynesian languages!

    Exiled
    It is far from the Norwegian fjords to South America, and beyond to New Zealand. - Too far away for the Norwegian Vikings, most will say. Nevertheless, there are accounts of the Vikings who sailed there. The most famous is probably that of Taine Ruaridh Mhor, a guy in Scotland who in the 1100s was exiled and traveled to New Zealand with great family and friends. They were 95 pieces, in three long ships led by the Vikings. The people in Tain family was lyshudete, had reddish hair and blue eyes and was like almost two feet tall. Perhaps they were relatives of the Vikings, too?
    160 years later, three Viking ships with Norwegian captains again sent to New Zealand to see if any of Taine's descendants could be alive. It was they, in a colony on the South Island and one on the North Island. Some young men were taken back to Scotland to find wives. Some of these were in Scotland, while others returned to New Zealand.

    Explorers
    When the first European explorers arrived in New Zealand they saw white, tall people who were in white, soft clothes, and they heard stories that they had come across the Pacific from Peru. Even today, says Wataka-maoirene in New Zealand that they have old traditions that their tribe originally came from South America - and can tell if they brought hvithudete / helped their ancestors across the sea.
    There are many legends about hvithudete races who was in New Zealand before the Maori, and Maori had a perfectly good term for them: 'tangata whenua' - people who live in the country. There were other names for these whites, who Patupaiarehe, Turehu and Ngati Hotu. Common was that they were hvithudete, had red or blond hair and blue eyes.

    Official Theory
    When the English explorer Captain Cook arrived in New Zealand in 1769, he was greeted by Maori who told that their ancestors had come from a country called Havaikei in large canoes led by navigator Kupe. They named New Zealand Aotearoa, which is often translated to "The Long White Cloud Land", by the cloud they saw from their canoes before they made landfall. The official theory today coincides well with the legend, even if now the migration from the islands of Sydhavet went for a long time and came in several pool. The largest migration must have occurred in the 1300s, and the Maoris must have come from eastern Polynesia, and Raiatea in French Polynesia is often said to be a departure point.

    Touchy subject
    Where did Taine descendants go, why are there no reports in New Zealand about them or the other whites today? Why is the official theory that it was Maori who were the first to settle in "the long white cloud land"?
    There is currently a very sensitive political topic in New Zealand who were the first to settle in the country. Maori, who previously prepared their legends told about the whites who were in the country before them now claims persistently that they were the first. Why have they changed your mind? Well, much in the world today we are talking about politics and money, and this also applies here. Maori are today large sums in compensation from the government because the whites took the land from them by the colonization that occurred after Captain Cook.

    The evidence
    Fair enough with the old legends, but where is the evidence that there may have been the Vikings in New Zealand before the Maori arrived?
    - Most of the evidence are actually in the Maori culture itself, "said Martin Doutré, which has made it his life mission to show that there have been people in New Zealand before the Maori arrived. - Maori took everything when they sailed to New Zealand - houses, terraces, yes, the whole culture of the whites who were there before them!
    Martin has a point beyond doubt, for much of the Maori culture so proud says is their own are not deleted in Polynesia, where they originally would have come from. The houses that Maori lived in when Captain Cook and other explorers arrived have nothing in common with palm huts in Polynesia - they are similar in fact far more on old Norwegian storehouse and churches! Thor Heyerdahl pointed out the same when it comes to the old Maori wood-splitting that is so typical of the houses, which you now find in museums:
    - It is quite clear that such a design with curved lines and motifs are not on the wooden carvings in the Society Islands (French Polynesia), and it also includes the high and very old god-pillars that were erected in ancient Tahiti.
    Many places in New Zealand you will find hills, like ancient volcanic peaks, where the steep sides are formed into terraces. Today, archaeologists say that it is fast as Maori built to defend themselves against white invaders or other tribes.
    - Sure they have been used as fast, but they were built to an entirely different purpose, "said Martin Doutré - They have been markers for navigation and tower for astrological observations - all over the North Island you will find an accurate network of stone piles and markers, and it was not Maori who built this!
    Once again, I can only see why you can not find the equivalent in Polynesia where the Maoris say they come from,
    - You will never find any Polynesians in the process of shaping slopes to terraces or dragging stones together to cairns!

    Remains
    There is also a good deal of stone mounds very similar to the Viking ruins and dig around in New Zealand. Authorities said that only stone piles colonists accumulated when they cleared land for agriculture,
    Remains of buildings, or just rocks?.
    Remains of buildings, or just rocks?.
    but it will Doutré Martin and a number of other skeptics very well have been investigated. The same also applies to the rune stones that should have been found in several places in New Zealand, like the one in Raglan where it should be carved Viking runes.
    - We would also like to find out what had become of the preserved human heads that were on display at the museum in Auckland, said Martin and refers specifically to a picture a head of a dead man with blond hair and Nordic features. The macabre head should have had a label that said it was from the time before the first white explorers arrived. - It could also be of interest to study heaps of bones from the ravages of Maori and cannibal feasts before Captain Cook arrived in the country, they are in the caves where the authorities have now blocked the openings.
    Martin has a wealth of examples of the Maori culture can be "swiped" from the Vikings and the Celts who came to New Zealand, as belt buckles, swords, jewelry and decorations:
    - Many believe that the tattoos that Maori had the face, that someone actually has to this day, is unique to Maori, but it is not. It is known that the Vikings had similar decorations!

    Expelled
    - "My dad is from Norway", my nine year old son Olav said when I showed him an old picture of a Maori chief and asked where he could come from.
    Olav was born in Norway, but his mom is from Polynesia. Well, even today it is not difficult to see that most Māori looks different than the Polynesians, although they claim to be. They have much lighter skin and facial features that are much more European. Plus often freckles. Some anthropologists say that this is due to intermarriage with all the Europeans who migrated to New Zealand after the country became a British colony. Clear that intermarriage with whites has happened, but many Maori families are well aware that no married white after the British came, but they have white blood from those who came first - the tangata whenua. Yes, do as Olaf and looking at pictures and paintings from the time when the first Englishmen arrived with their brushes, cameras and so then it almost ridiculous to claim that they should be depicted Maori renrasete Polynesians.
    There are legends that tell how the white people who were the first races in the country were displaced. How they hunted by the more numerous Maori, were fewer and fewer - and had to seek refuge in inaccessible places, like in the mountains. Not all were killed, some of the women, who were regarded as particularly beautiful, it was probably like a prince's concubines. Since the title of chief among Maori was passed so it is no wonder that many chiefs of ancient pictures have white skin and European features!

    Trade wind
    Would the Vikings be able to sail all the way to New Zealand, over vast stretches of open sea? Well, to sail from, for example, Peru and to New Zealand will be clean on Sunday trip to sail from Norway to Iceland, although it would take longer. To sail with the gentle trade winds and have the power to help is nothing more than to fight against snow, wind and freezing cold sea!
    Although I sailed alone from Norway to the Pacific in my 7 meters long / short sailboat Coco Loco, and sailed around for four years. It took me 32 days to sail from the Galapagos off the Gulf of Panama to the Marquesas Islands in French Polynesia, the longest of sailing I had. Viking ships sailed far faster than the little Coco Loco, and would smooth clear distance in well under half the time.
    I was simply equipped with only Sumlog, sextant and charts, but on my voyage, I met jordomseilere not even had it.
    - I hit the country before or since, said the Spanish Miguel in his sailboat that was greater than the number of Coco Loco, when I met him on the Galapagos. Miguel was Basque and had barely seen the sea before he bought the yacht and cast off.
    Sure, he hit the country, I saw him again he was in Tahiti - as happy and satisfied, in the process of painting a ship in order to scrape together money for some food and kerosene!

    Compass
    The Vikings were excellent navigators and they were actually quite advanced instruments, such as weather vane, bearing slab, and half solstein wheels. Yes, they also used the magnetic rock, which was the forerunner of the compass. A jernnål was wiped over a natural magnetic stone until it was magnetized, and then thrust into a straw so it could float in a bowl of water and pointing to the north-south direction. It used his compass with solbrettet, solar skuggjáfjøl, which was a sundial made of wood. At about the same way as I did it aboard the Coco Loco to the Vikings with the help of these instruments determine latitude with a high degree of certainty. With its incredibly seaworthy and fast craft would be no problem to cross the oceans, some replicas of Viking ships also have proven.

    Sailing Routes
    How did they come from Norway to New Zealand? Well, the Vikings who some believe had come over to the west coast of North America via the Bering Strait, could quite easily have sailed south-west to Hawaii. Then, the race could go further over the ocean to New Zealand, or you could have taken it easy island hopping throughout Polynesia. Shall we say that it would take them a few months from Hawaii, with stops to get water and food? Not country time for people who had clocks and today's idea that everything will go so fast!

    Doutré Martin says that even though the Vikings came to New Zealand before the Maori as he believes that there is evidence that the country was populated by what might be called pre-Celts for thousands of years ago - long before the Vikings. What we do in this case, turning much of our world history upside down. The authorities will not even look at Martin's evidence, but it can do so by clicking here!

    If any of the Vikings who came over to Newfoundland, heading south instead of to the cold north, they would be able to round the Florida and into the Mexican Gulf. On Yucantan Peninsula need not look far to find the legends of white gods who came from the sea, one of them called and even Wotan, a name that is identical to Odin! Of course they would have had a struggle with Viking ships to haul over to the Pacific coast, but there are the rivers that runs most of the way!
    What about those who are sailing from the Canary Islands? Well, Brazil is the natural next stop if you follow the wind and currents. Here is the world's largest river, the Amazon, into the country, right up to the Andes pretty close the west coast. They had enough I put down the Viking ships and continue on foot - and then there were the legends according balsa raft from Peru! Some of the "Brazil-Vikings" could instead have chosen the Amazon have sailed further south, around Cape Horn and then it was pleasing the Pacific next! This was also the road, according to accounts, for those who were banished from Scotland and was sailed to New Zealand by Norwegian Vikings.
    The rogue mercenaries and båtkonstruktørene which allegedly was sent south from Indonesia by the Arab sultan would encounter in the Australia, but crocodiles and moskitobefengte waters would probably have caused them to head east, around Cape York and into the Pacific Ocean. Polynesia and New Zealand next!

    Mental block
    It is difficult to say which of the proposed routes are the most likely, but none of them would be impossible for the Vikings used to hardships. They had craft and navigational instruments that were more than good enough to cross oceans, and as I have proven in my journey in small Coco Loco so it does not take many generations to sail to the other side of the globe. It was probably much more clean, and it took much longer, for the first traders to move countries towards the exotic spice markets in India than to sail. So why many archaeologists still have a mental block when it comes to traffic on the oceans in the very early days it is difficult to comprehend.
    About the Norwegian Vikings came to New Zealand? Much even suggest it, but the answer we'll probably not before the authorities in the country allow archaeological excavations of what can be pre-Maori buildings and tombs, as well as independent DNA testing of deceased and living Maori. Unfortunately it may take time before the political landscape is ripe for it.
    http://www.sydhav.no/artikler/vikinger_new_zealand.htm

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    Post Re: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    Little Stone City submitted by Klingon

    Not Known (by us) in New Zealand

    Inside a private woodland there are some dozen of these small stone mounds. They are pre-Maori, but it is not much known about.


    Little Stone City Not Known (by us) : The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map:

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    Post Re: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    "You kids need to know of the Tūrehu, the fairy people. They live in these parts, they haven't been seen for many years but they're still here up in the hills, hiding in the mist."

    Pita later said he could hear a fine whistling sound, like a hollow bone when it's blown, flute sounds floating down through the valleys. They all turned, those strange people, seeming to glide effortlessly away, up over sand dunes and into the bush covered hills. We sat looking at each other until the sun rose from the sea and into the morning sky, not speaking, just thankful.
    We tried to tell the adults that ghost people had mended the nets, but they laughed and told us to get on with our work. All except Aunty Pare, she took us aside that night and listened to our story around the camp fire. She told us about the Tūrehu, the fairy people, who live on the ridges of the highest hills. "They dance in the mist," she said, "playing their bone flutes, trying to lure you away. They're spirits that haven't reached the after world and were the first to make the fishing nets used today. They won't go near cooked food or red clay and will take unsuspecting children back into the hills if they ever got the chance." That's when we knew we were very lucky.

    "No one has seen the Tūrehu as close up as we have. Sometimes just before dark or on a clear morning when the mist comes down through the valleys, you can hear them dancing and playing their spirit filled songs. As if they're calling out to lost children, singing to them, whispering in the mist, but we know better, don't we?"
    TKI - Māori Myths, Legends and Contemporary stories - T?rehu

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    In 1894 Hoani Nahe suggested that ‘Pakeha’ could be an abbreviation of ‘Paakehakeha’, gods of the ocean who had the forms of fish and man (Biggs, 1988). It is said that Nahe’s version was in response to Bishop W.L. Williams’ comment that ‘Pakeha’ seemed to be an abbreviation of Pakepakeha. This theory is supported firstly by the idea that white people, like the Paakehakeha, came from the sea, and secondly because the word ‘Paakehakeha’ contains a reduplication of the maori word ‘keha’ meaning ‘pale’ (The word ‘pakeha’: where it comes from, what it means, 1988). However, Paakehakeha, like Pa-Kea, has only one of the long vowels that can be found in ‘Pakeha’, pronounced Paakehaa. The most likely derivation seems to be from ‘Pakepakeha’ (George, 1999) mythical creatures who are mischievous, human-like beings, with fair skin and hair who lived deep in the forest, coming out only at night. (Biggs, 1988). The derivation of ‘Pakeha’ from ‘Pakepakeha’ is given added weight when we consider that the first term used to describe Cook and his crew was ‘tipua’ or ‘tupua’, a goblin or a supernatural object of terror (George,1999).
    The ‘Pakepakeha’ are also linked to ‘Patupaiarehe’ by their fair skin and hair. The ‘Patupaiarehe’ had fair skin and beautiful voices, and gave people the secret of fishing with nets. These creatures’ possess canoes made of reeds, which can change magically into sailing vessels. The ‘Patupaiarehe’ can also be linked to Nahe’s version of Pakeha as an abbreviation of ‘Paakehakeha’, gods of the ocean who had the forms of fish and man (Biggs, 1988).
    Pakeha, its origin and meaning


    Its name is derived from a legend of Ihenga, the famous Māori explorer. It is said Ihenga met the Patu-paiarehe on Mount Ngongotaha and was offered a drink from a calabash (ngongo = to drink, taha = calabash.
    The peaktop of the mountain is called Te Tuahu a te Atua (The Altar of the God).
    Ngongotaha (Fairy Mountain) | K?tiro

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    [QUOTE] And, according to Dr. Wyatt Gill, a golden-haired child in Mangaia is called "the fair-haired progeny of Tangaroa," the great god of the sea, who himself was sandy-haired, and, having been driven out from the island, lived page 37in distant lands with his fair-haired children. The Mangaians dislike light hair, and think it suitable only to foreigners. All through the islands dark hair and complexion are looked on as the sign of strength. Clearly a fair-haired race was driven out of many, if not all, of the islands, and took to the sea again; whilst the conquering immigrants were all of brown skin and dark hair. The massacre of Captain Cook reveals the same tradition in the Sandwich Islands. Because of his white skin and his great ship, he seemed to fulfil their old prediction that the god Rono would return again from Tahiti, and he was accorded divine honours, and was sacrificed that he might ever remain a god.[/QUOTE]

    Traces of a Fair-haired Race in the Other Groups | NZETC

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    The Maori dog (kuri) was not indigenous to New Zealand but was probably introduced during the period of the Great Migration (c. 1350 A.D. ). Although little is known of its distribution, it seems evident that the breed failed to establish itself to any great degree. It became extinct some years after the arrival of the European settlers.
    The Maori dog was a small, low-set animal, very ugly in appearance. Although it had a poor sense of smell, it was of some use in hunting night-moving birds such as the kiwi and also ducks in the moulting season. The Frenchman Crozet, who was at the Bay of Islands in June 1772, noted that: “The dogs are a sort of domesticated fox, quite black or white, very low on the legs, straight ears, thick tail, long body, full jaws, but more pointed than those of the fox, and uttering the same cry; they do not bark like our dogs”. According to Hutton, the dog was dull, lazy, and sullen in disposition. Yet it is credited with being a plaything or favourite of Maori women who regarded it with affection. The dog's carcass was put to a variety of uses. The flesh was considered a delicacy, the hair was used for ornaments and the adornment of weapons, the teeth served as ear pendants, and the skin for cloaks. These were made of skins either sewn together or else attached in strips to a piece of woven flax fibre.
    The dog figured a great deal in Maori tradition and even had its place in ritual as, for example, when the aid of Tu, the war-god, was sought before a battle took place. Sometimes a human victim was selected as a suitable offering. But there were times when a dog was accepted as a substitute. Buck states that the dog's heart was cooked on a spit and that, after the god had been appeased by the savour, the priest ate the flesh. Another war-god, Maru, was satisfied with a dog on all occasions.
    DOG, MAORI - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand

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    Post Re: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    Where did Maori come from?

    The male and female ancestors of today’s Maori people of New Zealand originated from different parts of the world, molecular biologists have said.

    Their claims, made by Masters student Adele Whyte, the Tuapapa Putaiao Maori Fellow at Victoria University in Wellington, and her supervisor Professor Geoff Chambers, will be aired on ABC-TV’s science program Catalyst tonight.

    By comparing the DNA of people from Asia, across the Pacific Ocean and New Zealand, Whyte and Chambers have revealed a 'living genetic map' of ancient Maori migration routes.

    The findings confirm archaeological evidence that the ancestors of today’s Maori originally set out from mainland south-east Asia 6,000 years ago, hopped from island to island, starting with Taiwan, and arrived in New Zealand 800 to 1,000 years ago.

    However the research also brings startlingly new evidence that as Maori ancestors migrated one group of islands to the next, men from Melanesian communities joined the boats. This changed the genetic mix, and lead to the differences observed in the genetic make-up of today’s Maori men and women.

    The research involved two separate genetic mapping processes. The Southeast Asian homeland was confirmed by Chambers’ research into the frequency of two different genes that influence the body’s reaction to alcohol. He found that while Asian people have both gene types, Maori and Pacific Islanders have inherited only one.

    He looked back along the trail of migration to try and work out where the gene was lost. The indigenous people from Taiwan have both genes, but a lower frequency of one - the very gene that the Maori now lack
    The second mapping process involved Whyte’s examination of sex-linked genetic markers, namely mitochondrial DNA in women, and Y-chromosomes in men. The research found that in addition to the alcohol genes, female Maori have other genetic markers which confirm their ancient Asian origin. To her surprise, however, the men have genetic markers that show a Melanesian ancestry.

    “As a result of intermarriage along the migration trail, the signatures of the mitochondrial DNA from women have stayed more ‘island south-east Asian’, and the Y-chromosomes are more Melanesian,” Whyte told ABC Science Online.

    “We think both men and women set off together, and recruited local guides who were probably men. Women stayed with the south-east Asian populations, and Melanesian men were recruited along the way.”

    Genetic bottlenecks
    Whyte also analysed the ‘haplotypes’ (groups of closely linked genes) carried on mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited only through the female line. Each population has a unique range of haplotypes. While Europeans have over 100 haplotypes in a particular region of DNA, studies so far have only found four different Maori haplotypes in the same region.

    “The reason for this difference is what we call a genetic bottleneck. When people leave an island to go to the next island, obviously not everybody gets on the boat, so some of the genetic diversity is being lost,” she said. “Some of the maternal lineages may not have got on the boat, so they’re not carried on to the next place.”

    Whyte has now identified 10 haplotypes in New Zealand Maori. “From that we have worked out that 56 women came to New Zealand to create the diversity of today’s population,” she added.

    Whyte said these findings were consistent with Maori legend.

    “The story I was told when I was growing up is that there was a fleet of seven great waka (canoes) that came to New Zealand," she said. "Every tribe knows which waka their ancestors arrived in. My ancestors were in a waka called Takitimu.”

    “There might have been 20 people travelling in a canoe the size of a waka. Seven waka, that’s about 140 people. And if, as we think, about half or 56 of these people happen to be women, it does seem to tie in.”
    Ancient Worlds News - Maori men and women from different homelands - 27/03/2003

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    Post Re: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    Could it be that Hawaiiki, the mythical Maori homeland, is a 4000-year misty memory in the valleys of Taiwan?
    The Human Sheep: Hawaiiki is Taiwan- Maori men and women from different homelands

    ''These peculiarities are probably reflective of
    the history of settlement. It is possible that the
    early population that arose from the mixing of
    Southeast Asians and Melanesians spoke an
    Austronesian language.''

    “Maori Origins, Y-Chromosome Haplotypes and Implications for Human History in the Pacific”
    Underhill, P. A., Passarino, G., Lin, A. A., Marzuki, S., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. and Chambers, G.
    Human Mutation, 2001, volume 17, pages 271-280


    read more about Hawaiki here
    Hawaiki - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    Post Re: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    At sea, a taniwha often appears as a whale or as a large shark; compare the Māori name for the Great white shark: mangō-taniwha. In inland waters, they may still be of whale-like dimensions, but look more like a gecko or a tuatara, having a row of spines along the back. Other taniwha appear as a floating log, which behaves in a disconcerting way (Orbell 1998:149-150, Reed 1963:297). Some can tunnel through the earth, uprooting trees in the process. Legends credit certain taniwha with creating harbours by carving out a channel to the ocean
    Taniwha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Taniwha are supernatural creatures whose forms and characteristics vary according to different tribal traditions. Though supernatural, in the Māori world view they were seen as part of the natural environment. Taniwha have been described as fabulous monsters that live in deep water. Others refer to them as dragons – many taniwha looked like reptiles, had wings and ate people. They could also take the shape of animals such as sharks, whales, octopuses, or even logs. Some taniwha could change their shape, moving between different forms.
    Taniwha were either male or female. They usually lived in or near the water – lakes, rivers or the sea. They hid in lairs known as rua taniwha, which could be deep pools, caves, or dangerous waterways – areas that people avoided.
    In some traditions, taniwha were terrifying creatures that captured people and ate them. Occasionally, it was said that they would kidnap women to live with them as wives. These monsters would inevitably be killed and the women returned to their families.
    Taniwha - What are taniwha? - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand






    the dragon is more commonly associated with Wales, as its national flag features a red dragon (Y Ddraig Goch). This may originate in Arthurian Legend where Myrddin, employed by Gwrtheyrn, had a vision of the red dragon[8] (representing the Britons) and the white dragon (representing the invading Saxons) fighting beneath Dinas Emrys. This particular legend also features in the Mabinogion in the story of Lludd and Llefelys.[9] The legendary house of Pendragon and Celtic Britain in general have become associated with the Welsh dragon standard after the fact.
    European dragon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The serpent is an important magical symbol in Celtic mythology, its image found in carvings and sacred jewelry. Those born near St. Keyne's Day, October 8th, are empowered with good fortune and wisdom. Because snakes shed their skin, they are symbolically creating themselves anew. Their venom, which can kill in sufficient quantity, has also been used in healing and inducing trance like states.
    The Celts believed that when you see a snake while on a shamanic journey, prepare to shed something in favor of something greater and better.
    The Serpent: Animal Symbols of the Celtic Druids



    Norse Mythology
    Jörmungandr - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    In Norse mythology there are several references to dragons.


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    Post Re: Celtic and Viking traces in Ancient New Zealand

    Waka (English pronunciation: /ˈwɒkə/, Maori [ˈwɒka]) are Māori watercraft, usually canoes ranging in size from small, unornamented canoes (waka tīwai) used for fishing and river travel, to large decorated war canoes (waka taua) up to 40 metres (130 ft) long
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waka_(canoe)





    The front of the Waka has some kind of creature




    Viking ships have the heads of horses or dragons at the front of their ships









    Viking ship - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Viking symbol
    The viking vessels were called “Dragon Ships” because a ceremonial decoration in the shape of a dragon's head was placed on the bow of the shipThe particular design, shape and decoration of the dragon's head also was symbolic of the leader of the group or crew. They symbolized the Viking force and powerThe ships were quite fast (7-12 knots speed) and extremely stable in the rough seas off Scandinavia and the North Atlantic.
    Vikings were superstitious folk, and the heads on their dragon ships were intended to ward off sea monsters and spirits. On land (and returning to port) the heads would be removed so they did not offend friendly land spirits
    Viking ship - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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