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Thread: Red Haired Mummies of China

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    Post Red Haired Mummies of China

    It's McMummy! Chinese unearth 4000-year-old mummy with ginger hair and a kilt - The Daily Record

    It's McMummy! Chinese unearth 4000-year-old mummy with ginger hair and a kilt

    Feb 22 2011



    mummy Image 2

    4000-year-old China body has red hair and kilt
    A 4000-YEAR-OLD Chinese mummy has been claimed as a Scot - because of its red hair and kilt-like dress.
    The origins of the mummy, known as the Beauty of Xiaohe, have been the subject of much debate since she was found in Xinjiang region in western China.
    Other mummified remains found in the region have been linked to warriors of the Caledonii tribe.
    The Beauty is on show in Philadelphia in the US as part of the Chinese Secrets Of The Silk Road exhibition.
    One source who viewed the mummy, believed to be among the earliest inhabitants of the Xinjiang region, said: "The hair has an orange tint and she looks Celtic or Scottish. The clothes had plaid patterns, like Scottish kilts."
    The mummies linked to the Caledonii have red-brown hair and a ginger beard and wore tartan leggings.
    The bodies are better preserved than Egyptian mummies and similarities to traditional Bronze Age Celts are said to be uncanny.

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    Post Re: Red Haired Mummies of China



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    Xinjiang: scenery & environment

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    modern-day Xinjiang


    The Tocharians [Tokharians] were a fully Indo-Europid people that lived in parts of modern-day "China", primarily in the west of modern-day Xinjiang 新疆 [‘New Frontier’] of which only since a decade or two became more known of. That being said, primarily because of the Chinese government allowing a bit more than what was the case in the past, regardless of their attitude to the whole ‘mummy people’ as a whole.

    The Tocharians remained fully Europid during their ‘stay’, far longer than expected or than anyone could've dreamt - even with rather fair features in complexion - for thousands of years. This shocked many of the multiculturalist archeologists and anthropologists, but they couldn't deny it.

    Aside that they were also responsible for founding and spreading the Indo-European religions Hinduism and Buddhism, of which in the latter case most Tocharians belonged to spiritually and theologically. Not only that, perhaps just a mere detail, but most amazingly perhaps is that they brought both the horse and the wheel to China; which both didn't exist there prior to their arrival. Those horses, by the way, ironically used against many other peoples in the world - mostly Europids - as the Mongols grew united and started their expansion in approximately the year 1100 after Christ.



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    Takla Makan desert region, nowadays the Tarim Basin

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    Tocharian mummy in excellent shape, but... for how long under the current conditions?


    It has only been until approximately a decade or so they've dug up mummies and other findings in extremely good conditions in the Takla Makan desert and Tarim Basin region. Though, a lot of the mummies found in Xinjiang that were ever found were either decapitated, desecrated completely along with the grave or completely destroyed; in which the central government of the People's Republic of China reportedly often even participated in with. So were many (wall)paintings, most of the time defaced as they were found in the many caves; particularly the eyes were ‘gouged’ out on the painted rock.



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    Defaced paintings, found on cave walls, depicting Tocharians...


    The surrounding populations couldn't stand the fact that people would ever find traces of Europids in that part of the world; an Europid wall painting, let alone a mummy with a Europid head and face.

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    Post Re: Red Haired Mummies of China

    [27th November 2008]
    OTTAWA – Researchers say they have located the world's oldest stash of marijuana, in a tomb in a remote part of China.

    The cache of cannabis is about 2,700 years old and was clearly ``cultivated for psychoactive purposes," rather than as fibre for clothing or as food, says a research paper in the Journal of Experimental Botany.

    The 789 grams of dried cannabis was buried alongside a light-haired, blue-eyed Caucasian man, likely a shaman of the Gushi culture, near Turpan in northwestern China.

    The extremely dry conditions and alkaline soil acted as preservatives, allowing a team of scientists to carefully analyze the stash, which still looked green though it had lost its distinctive odour.


    "To our knowledge, these investigations provide the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent," says the newly published paper, whose lead author was American neurologist Dr. Ethan B. Russo.

    Remnants of cannabis have been found in ancient Egypt and other sites, and the substance has been referred to by authors such as the Greek historian Herodotus. But the tomb stash is the oldest so far that could be thoroughly tested for its properties.


    The 18 researchers, most of them based in China, subjected the cannabis to a battery of tests, including carbon dating and genetic analysis. Scientists also tried to germinate 100 of the seeds found in the cache, without success.

    The marijuana was found to have a relatively high content of THC, the main active ingredient in cannabis, but the sample was too old to determine a precise percentage.

    Researchers also could not determine whether the cannabis was smoked or ingested, as there were no pipes or other clues in the tomb of the shaman, who was about 45 years old.
    The large cache was contained in a leather basket and in a wooden bowl, and was likely meant to be used by the shaman in the afterlife.

    "This materially is unequivocally cannabis, and no material has previously had this degree of analysis possible," Russo said in an interview from Missoula, Mont.

    "It was common practice in burials to provide materials needed for the afterlife. No hemp or seeds were provided for fabric or food. Rather, cannabis as medicine or for visionary purposes was supplied."

    The tomb also contained bridles, archery equipment and a harp, confirming the man's high social standing.

    Russo is a full-time consultant with GW Pharmaceuticals, which makes Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine approved in Canada for pain linked to multiple sclerosis and cancer.

    The company operates a cannabis-testing laboratory at a secret location in southern England to monitor crop quality for producing Sativex, and allowed Russo use of the facility for tests on 11 grams of the tomb cannabis.

    Researchers needed about 10 months to cut red tape barring the transfer of the cannabis to England from China, Russo said.
    The inter-disciplinary study was published this week by the British-based botany journal, which uses independent reviewers to ensure the accuracy and objectivity of all submitted papers.
    The substance has been found in two of the 500 Gushi tombs excavated so far in northwestern China, indicating that cannabis was either restricted for use by a few individuals or was administered as a medicine to others through shamans, Russo said.

    "It certainly does indicate that cannabis has been used by man for a variety of purposes for thousands of years."
    Russo, who had a neurology practice for 20 years, has previously published studies examining the history of cannabis.
    "I hope we can avoid some of the political liabilities of the issue," he said, referring to his latest paper.

    The region of China where the tomb is located, Xinjiang, is considered an original source of many cannabis strains worldwide.

    Dean Beeby

    THE CANADIAN PRESS

    [SOURCE: http://www.thestar.com/sciencetech/article/544684]

    Uighur farmers cultivating the land at the base of the Huoyan Shan (‘Flaming Mountains’) in the Gobi Desert near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China some 20 years ago uncovered a vast ancient cemetery (54 000 m2) that seemingly corresponds to the nearby Aidinghu, Alagou, and Subeixi excavations (Ma and Wang, 1994; Chen and Hiebert, 1995; Davis-Kimball, 1998; Kamberi, 1998; An, 2008) (see Supplementary Fig. S1 at JXB online) attributed to the Gsh culture (later rendered Jüshi, or Cheshi) (Academia Turfanica, 2006). The first written reports concerning this clan, drafted about 2000 years BP (before present) in the Chinese historical record, Hou Hanshu, described nomadic light-haired blue-eyed Caucasians speaking an Indo-European language (probably a form of Tocharian, an extinct Indo-European tongue related to Celtic, Italic, and Anatolic (Ma and Sun, 1994). The Gsh tended horses and grazing animals, farmed the land and were accomplished archers (Mallory and Mair, 2000).
    [SOURCE: http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/co...ull/59/15/4171]


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    Post Re: Red Haired Mummies of China

    The Taklamakan Mummies (Tocharian mummies)

    In the late 1980's, perfectly preserved 3000-year-old mummies began appearing in a remote Taklamakan desert. They had long reddish-blond hair, European features and didn't appear to be the ancestors of modern-day Chinese people. Archaeologists now think they may have been the citizens of an ancient civilization that existed at the crossroads between China and Europe.
    Victor Mair, a specialist in the ancient corpses and co-author of “Mummies of the Tarim Basin”, said:"Modern DNA and ancient DNA show that Uighurs, Kazaks, Krygyzs, the peoples of Central Asia are all mixed Caucasian and East Asian. The modern and ancient DNA tell the same story.”

    The discoveries in the 1980s of the undisturbed 4,000-year-old ”Beauty of Loulan” and the younger 3,000-year-old body of the ”Charchan Man” are legendary in world archaeological circles for the fine state of their preservation and for the wealth of knowledge they bring to modern research. In the second millennium BC, the oldest mummies, like the Loulan Beauty, were the earliest settlers in the Tarim Basin.

    Mummies of "Tomb 2"



    The first Tocharian Nordic mummy found in 1989: a White female with long blond hair, finely preserved by the arid desert atmosphere of the Taklamakan desert. Based on her partially dismembered limbs and gouged out eyes, archaeologists believe she was a sacrificial victim.



    This mummified boy, approximately one-year-old, was found in the same grave. He, too, is believed to have been a sacrificial victim who was buried alive.



    A Tocharian female mummy with long flaxen blond hair, perfectly preserved in ponytails. Items of weaved material, identical to Celtic cloth, definitively proved the Indo-European origins of the Tocharians, who not only built the fantastic Silk Road cities which today lie deserted, but who are also credited with bringing Buddhism, horses, the saddle, and iron working to China. This mummy was approximately 40-years old, was found in the main chamber of the same tomb. Her tall stature, high nose, and red hair indicate that she was of European descent.

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    Mummies from the Wupu cemetery



    This mummy of an 18 to 20 year old woman is on display at a museum in Khumul. Her features, particularly her overbite, indicate Caucasian heritage.




    A Tocharian man with red-blond hair; his clear European features still visible after nearly 3,500 years in his desert grave in Taklamakan.
    This mummified man was approximately 40 years old at the time of his death.


    "Cherchen Man" and Family (China)

    A family of immaculately preserved, 3,000-year-old caucasian mummies were found in East Turkistan, in 1978. Though it was commonly believed that the first contact between East Turkistan and the West occurred relatively late in world history — around the middle of the second century B.C. — carbon dating has shown that the Cherchen man and his family died 900 years earlier. They were preserved naturally by the salty and dry Chinese landscape.





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    Meanwhile, Yingpan Man, a nearly perfectly preserved 2,000-year-old Caucasoid mummy, discovered in 1995 in the region that bears his name, has been seen as the best preserved of all the undisturbed mummies that have so far been found.
    Yingpan Man not only had a gold foil death mask -- a Greek tradition -- covering his blonde bearded face, but also wore elaborate golden embroidered red and maroon garments with seemingly Western European designs.

    His nearly 2.00 meter (six-foot, six-inch) long body is the tallest of all the mummies found so far and the clothes and artifacts discovered in the surrounding tombs suggest the highest level of Caucasoid civilization in the ancient Tarim Basin region.


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    One of the most famous Tocharian mummies found, the so-called "Beauty of Loulan"; and right, her face as reconstructed by an artist.

    “Beauty of Loulan” The oldest mummies found in the Tarim Basin come from Loulan located at the east end of the egg shaped Taklamakan Desert. Dressed only in shades of brown, she was alive as early as 2000 B.C. during the era of Abraham and the patriarchs. She died when she was about 40. Next to her head there is a basket which contains grains of wheat.



    The Takla Makan Mummies

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    Default Re: Red Haired Mummies of China

    Good,
    an important fact in White History that is something anti-white academia and media continually suppress and deny in that constant effort to bury all things White..

    China pulls 4,000 yr old Mummy from Exhibit b/c of its Caucasian features
    Mystery of the mummy's Chinese travel ban - Asia, World - The Independent#

    Quote:
    The mummy was recovered from China's Tarim Basin, in Xinjiang province. But her Caucasian features raised the prospect that the region's inhabitants were European settlers.
    Quote:
    it was pulled from an exhibition following a sudden call from the Chinese authorities on the eve of opening.


    Mystery of the mummy's Chinese travel ban - Asia, World - The Independent
    "Is there anything funnier, or ghastlier,
    than a jew sitting in moral judgment of a non jew?”

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    Post Re: Red Haired Mummies of China

    Mair has claimed that:
    The new finds are also forcing a reexamination of old Chinese books that describe historical or legendary figures of great height, with deep-set blue or green eyes, long noses, full beards, and red or blond hair. Scholars have traditionally scoffed at these accounts, but it now seems that they may be accurateTarim mummies - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Tocharian languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Tocharian script - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Tocharians - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Silk Road transmission of Buddhism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    Post Re: Red Haired Mummies of China

    Controversy over Caucasian Mummies in China
    by Ian Mosley
    It has long been a generally accepted archaeological secret that many of the original settlers of Asia were White. Now all of a sudden the Chinese government is getting antsy about the subject.
    The U. K. Independent (again, no American media will touch the story) reports: “For her advanced years, she looks remarkable. Despite nearing the ripe old age of 4,000, long eyelashes still frame her half-open eyes and hair tumbles down to her remarkably well-preserved shoulders. But the opportunity for new audiences in the United States to view the Lady of Tarim – a near perfectly preserved mummy from an inhospitable part of western China – has been dealt a blow after it was pulled from an exhibition following a sudden call from the Chinese authorities on the eve of opening. The reason for pulling the mummy and other artefacts from the show remained unclear yesterday (Chinese officials were on New Year holiday) but there were suggestions that the realities of modern Chinese politics may have had a part to play. The mummy was recovered from China’s Tarim Basin, in Xinjiang province. But her Caucasian features raised the prospect that the region’s inhabitants were European settlers. It raises the question about who first settled in Xinjiang and for how long the oil-rich region has been part of China. The questions are important – most notably for the Chinese authorities who face an intermittent separatist movement of nationalist Uighurs, a Turkic-speaking Muslim people who number nine million in Xinjiang.”
    These aren’t the first Caucasian mummies found in China. There were five thousand year old mummies with finely woven clothes, who were found. This raises the question of how much technology was transferred to China thousands of years ago by White travelers.
    The article notes “The government-approved story of China’s first contact with the West dates back to 200 BC when China’s emperor Wu Di wanted to establish an alliance with the West against the marauding Huns, then based in Mongolia. However, the discovery of the mummies suggests that Caucasians were settled in a part of China thousands of years before Wu Di: the notion that they arrived in Xinjiang before the first East Asians is truly explosive. Xinjiang is dominated by the Uighurs, who resent what they see as intrusion by the Han Chinese. The tensions which have spilled over into violent clashes in recent years. Whatever the reason for the Chinese decision, it has caused great disappointment at the Pennsylvania museum where the ‘Secrets of the Silk Road’ were due to go on show after successful exhibitions in California and Texas without major repercussions”
    Essentially, it is an embarrassing but increasingly accepted fact that White people settled many parts of the world first. Kennewick Man is well-known, predating the Indians by thousands of years. There were even red-headed settlers, who sailed to Easter Island. This is an historical and archaeological secret that no one in power under political correctness wishes to admit.
    These prehistoric and highly civilized White people have come to be known as Solutreans, after a specific kind of spear point found in the Solutre region of France, dating from almost 40,000 years ago. The Chinese mummies in question were found wearing Celtic ornamentation and what appears to be an early form of tartan cloth.
    Controvery over Caucasian Mummies in China | The Official Website of Representative David Duke, PhD

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    Post Re: Red Haired Mummies of China

    In the late 1980′s, perfectly preserved 4,000-year-old mummies began appearing in a remote Chinese desert. They had long reddish-blond hair, European features and didn’t appear to be the ancestors of modern-day Chinese people. Archaeologists now think they may have been the citizens of an ancient civilization of Aryans that existed in the east.
    The mummies had long noses and skulls, blond or red hair, thin lips, deepset eyes, and other unmistakably Caucasian features. Dr. Victor H. Mair of the University of Pennsylvania said, “The Tarim Basin Caucasoid corpses are almost certainly representatives of the Indo-European family”.
    Ancient Greek and Chinese historians had long referenced a unique cultural and ethnic group on its western frontier with red hair and blue eyes, a group that settled ancient Afghanistan and forged a vibrant Buddhist empire that spread Buddhism to much of the the world through China and India. But when 4,000-year-old mummies were unearthed in the early 20th century in the Tarim Basin of the western Chinese desert with blatant “white” physiognomy and clothing of apparently European origin, historians, anthropologists, and archeologists were awestruck. The tenuous ethnocultural issue made this a serious issue:
    Europeans emphasized the role of “Europeans” in creating an ancient frontier civilization that brought a world religion to Asia; Chinese scholars refused to believe that significant foundations of their history were “imported,” and the modern residents of the Tarim region (Xinjiang) — the Muslim Uyghurs — insist that they were the original natives of the region.
    The Europoid Tarim mummies are some of the oldest and best preserved corpses in the world, protected by the extremely dry climate of East Turkestan. Blatantly related to one of the races of European origin, they give us one of the earliest looks yet at the migratory movement, culture, and civilization of early European peoples.
    A number of cultural or ethnic groups lived in the same area as the ancient Caucasian mummies and may have moved southward to Afghanistan. Some had red hair and blue eyes as shown on Chinese artwork. The Tocharians are identified as this European-featured bringer of Buddhism. But are they related to the blatantly genetically European mummies, or did the Chinese merely see another racial group like the Iranians with recessive features? Tracing these peoples’ history allows us to better determine whether or not it was this ancient white European culture of mummies that forever shaped the evolution of Asia or not.
    Some major physical evidence we have to determine whether these Buddhist missionaries were related to the mummies is from Chinese frescoes, imagery, and literature depicting their strange western neighbors bringing them a new religion. Chinese sources depict what they call the Yuezhi and what Greeks called Tocharians as quite foreign in their dress, culture, and appearance. Chinese art shows pale-skinned, red-headed, blue-eyed monks with beards obviously from a race and culture very different from the Han Chinese. Sporting partially-shaved heads, dangling earlobes, and the lotus-shaped hand posture, these white Europoids are obviously Buddhist monks bringing the new faith to the Chinese along commercial and migratory routes that they had followed when they left the Tarim Basin for Afghanistan. The entire facial appearance of the white Buddhist missionaries is different: the original artists did not simply depict humanoids in general or Chinese men with red hair. They were portraying a very foreign racial group.
    Their graveyard, known as Small River Cemetery No. 5, lies near a dried-up riverbed in the Tarim Basin, a region encircled by forbidding mountain ranges. Most of the basin is occupied by the Taklimakan Desert, a wilderness so inhospitable that later travelers along the Silk Road would edge along its northern or southern borders.
    In modern times the region has been occupied by Turkish-speaking Uighurs, joined in the last 50 years by Han settlers from China. Ethnic tensions have recently arisen between the two groups, with riots in Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang. A large number of ancient mummies, really desiccated corpses, have emerged from the sands, only to become pawns between the Uighurs and the Han.
    The mummies in the Small River Cemetery are, so far, the oldest discovered in the Tarim Basin. Carbon tests done at Beijing University show that the oldest part dates to 3,980 years ago. A team of Chinese geneticists has analyzed the mummies’ DNA.
    Despite the political tensions over the mummies’ origin, the Chinese said in a report published last month in the journal BMC Biology that the people were of mixed ancestry, having both European and some Siberian genetic markers. The team was led by Hui Zhou of Jilin University in Changchun, with Dr. Jin as a co-author.
    As the Chinese archaeologists dug through the five layers of burials, Dr. Mair recounted, they came across almost 200 poles, each 13 feet tall. Many had flat blades, painted black and red, like the oars from some great galley that had foundered beneath the waves of sand.
    At the foot of each pole there were indeed boats, laid upside down and covered with cowhide. The bodies inside the boats were still wearing the clothes they had been buried in. They had felt caps with feathers tucked in the brim, uncannily resembling Tyrolean mountain hats. They wore large woolen capes with tassels and leather boots. A Bronze Age salesclerk from Victoria’s Secret seems to have supplied the clothes beneath — barely adequate woolen loin cloths for the men, and skirts made of string strands for the women.
    Within each boat coffin were grave goods, including beautifully woven grass baskets, skillfully carved masks and bundles of ephedra, an herb that may have been used in rituals or as a medicine.
    In the women’s coffins, the Chinese archaeologists encountered one or more life-size wooden phalluses laid on the body or by its side. Looking again at the shaping of the 13-foot poles that rise from the prow of each woman’s boat, the archaeologists concluded that the poles were in fact gigantic phallic symbols. Arthur Wolf, an anthropologist at Stanford University and an expert on fertility in East Asia, said that the poles perhaps mark social status, a common theme of tombs and grave goods.
    Dr. Mair said the Chinese archaeologists’ interpretation of the poles as phallic symbols was “a believable analysis.” The buried people’s evident veneration of procreation could mean they were interested in both the pleasure of sex and its utility, given that it is difficult to separate the two. But they seem to have had particular respect for fertility, Dr. Mair said, because several women were buried in double-layered coffins with special grave goods.
    The language spoken by the people of the Small River Cemetery is unknown, but Dr. Mair believes it could have been Tokharian, an ancient member of the Indo-European family of languages. Manuscripts written in Tokharian have been discovered in the Tarim Basin.
    The Small River Cemetery people lived more than 2,000 years before the earliest evidence for Tokharian, but there is “a clear continuity of culture,” Dr. Mair said, in the form of people being buried with felt hats, a tradition that continued until the first few centuries A.D.

    Tarim Mummies of China, bringers of Buddhism to Asia?

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    Post Re: Red Haired Mummies of China

    Roman accounts
    Pliny the Elder (, Chap XXIV "Taprobane") reports a curious description of the Seres (in the territories of northwestern China) made by an embassy from Taprobane (Ceylon) to Emperor Claudius, saying that they "exceeded the ordinary human height, had flaxen hair, and blue eyes, and made an uncouth sort of noise by way of talking", suggesting they may be referring to the ancient Caucasian populations of the Tarim Basin:
    "They also informed us that the side of their island (Taprobane) which lies opposite to India is ten thousand stadia in length, and runs in a south-easterly direction--that beyond the Emodian Mountains (Himalayas) they look towards the Serve (Seres), whose acquaintance they had also made in the pursuits of commerce; that the father of Rachias (the ambassador) had frequently visited their country, and that the Seræ always came to meet them on their arrival. These people, they said, exceeded the ordinary human height, had flaxen hair, and blue eyes, and made an uncouth sort of noise by way of talking, having no language of their own for the purpose of communicating their thoughts. The rest of their information (on the Serae) was of a similar nature to that communicated by our merchants. It was to the effect that the merchandise on sale was left by them upon the opposite bank of a river on their coast, and it was then removed by the natives, if they thought proper to deal on terms of exchange. On no grounds ought luxury with greater reason to be detested by us, than if we only transport our thoughts to these scenes, and then reflect, what are its demands, to what distant spots it sends in order to satisfy them, and for how mean and how unworthy an end!"
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarim_mummieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarim_mummies

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    Post Re: Red Haired Mummies of China

    Around 2300 BC, Aryan tribes (Indo-Iranians) poured off the Pontic Steppes, and migrated east & south. By ~1800 BC, they had reached China & India. In the figure below, these Indo-Iranians' original homelands are colored dark red, while their migrations are marked in light red*:
    This expansion coincides with a catastrophic climate change, around 2200 BC**, which laid low Egypt's Old Kingdom***.
    Meanwhile, the Aryan proto-Tocharians (Afanasevo culture) had already settled southern Siberia, north of the Himalayas & northwest of China, from 3500 to 2500 BC*. Like the Indo-Iranians, the proto-Tocharians then migrated south & east, to the Takla Makan desert, west of China. There, mummies, dating from 1800 to 1000 BC, show clear "Europoid" Aryan features**. These proto-Tocharians herded sheep, and used horses, donkeys, & carts. They likely introduced the Chinese to sophisticated wool weaving, the wheel, & bronze. By 1000 BC, they had established vast trading networks. By 300 BC, they were trading, with the Chinese, in silk.
    * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afanasevo_culture
    ** NOVA -- Mysterious Mummies of China (VHS). The mummies wear red woolen plaids, remaniscent of Celtic tartans, have blond & red hair, & even typical European oval faces & overbites.
    In sum, archaeological evidence shows "trade networks right across Asia" by 2000 BC, and "possibly earlier", nearly 2000 years before Emperor Ch'in opened up the Silk Road to Roman merchants*. Indeed, the Ulu Burun shipwreck, in the Aegean, from the 14th Century BC, contains:
    • Copper ingots, from the Middle East
    • Pottery, from Cyprus & the Levant
    • Elephant tusks & ebony logs, from Equatorial Africa
    • Tin & colored glass, from Central Asia
    • Gold, from Egypt
    • Ornaments, from Mycenaean Greece
    This shows that the "greater part of the Mediterranean in antiquity was connected by trade", to the Middle East and Central Asia**.
    * Mysteries of the Ancient World (Episode II) (DVD) [36:00]. Moreover, the proto-Tocharians' sheep, from analysis of their wools, were of European (not Chinese) stock.
    ** History Channel Digging for the Truth -- Troy: of Gods & Warriors (DVD)
    CONCLUSION: By linking all the lands, from China to Mesopotamia, with one single culture, the Aryan tribes paved the (proto-) Silk Road, by 2000 BC*.
    * Silk, itself, wasn't run along the route until around 300 BC (see above).

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    Post Re: Red Haired Mummies of China

    THE TOCHARIANS - THE GREAT LOST WHITE CIVILIZATION IN CHINA
    One of the furthermost eastern migrations of Celtic peoples - Indo-European Nordics - reached the Takla Makan desert (situated between Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tibet) in China around 1500 BC.
    This great migration was unknown until the 1977 AD discovery of 3500-year-old graves of these people. As a result of the natural dryness of the environment, many of the corpses are almost perfectly preserved, with their reddish-blond hair, long noses, round eyes and finely woven tartan clothing (usually associated with the Celts in Scotland), showing undeniably White racial traits.
    The Tocharians: the Great Lost White migration to China.
    The Chinese civilization always contained stories of blue-eyed and blonde-haired leaders who were the originators of Buddhism and who were the first leaders and organizers of Chinese society. These stories were always regarded as pure legend until the 1977 discovery of the graveyards of the Tocharians in the Takla Makan desert in China. The Tocharian mummies - naturally preserved in the dry desert sands are unequivocally clear Nordic racial types. The graveyards lie near the ruins of the great Tocharian cities, built along the famous Silk Route. It is beyond doubt that Whites settled in China, and the Chinese legends of White influence on that civilization may yet have some basis in fact.


    Above left: The first Tocharian Nordic mummy to be found: a White female with long blond hair, finely preserved by the arid desert atmosphere of the Takla Makan desert. Right: A Tocharian man with red-blond hair; his clear European features still visible after nearly 3,500 years in his desert grave in China.
    These people have become known by the language which they spoke: Tocharian. The civilization which they built consisted of great cities, temples, centers of learning and art - they were also the builders and maintainers of the original Silk Road - the path for trade between the West and China itself.
    It was originally thought that the Chinese built the great cities along the Silk Road, but the discovery of the remains of the original people of this region now shows that the impressive ruins which still lie, undisturbed, along that road, are the remains of a great lost White civilization.
    The first White mummy in the region was discovered by accident in 1977 after shifting sands uncovered a female corpse whose body had been mutilated, presumably in some act of war.
    Excavation around her corpse uncovered a further 16 mummies, so perfectly preserved by the desert that traces of tears were found on the face of a mummified infant. Fully dressed bodies have been found wearing finely woven woolen textiles with Celtic patterns, leather shoes and jewelry. The desert conditions proved so exceptional that even pieces of bread used as offerings were preserved intact alongside what is the world's oldest saddle.
    In one grave, excavators discovered a saddle cover and a pair of trousers with drawings of humans on one leg - one face had blue eyes.
    Tocharian mummies reveal Indo-European origins of early Chinese Civilization

    Above: A Tocharian female mummy with long flaxen blond hair, perfectly preserved in ponytails. Items of weaved material, identical to Celtic cloth, definitively proved the Indo-European origins of the Tocharians, who not only built the fantastic Silk Road cities which today lie deserted, but who are also credited with bringing Buddhism, horses, the saddle, and iron working to China. Chinese legend maintains that the first Chinese emperors - who brought unity and civilization to China - had fair or blue eyes. This legend can now be confirmed as fact.


    Above left and right: One of the most famous Tocharian mummies found, the so-called "Beauty of Loulan"; and right, her face as reconstructed by an artist.


    Above left : a close-up of a Tocharian male, and right, a swastika decoration found on a clay bowl recovered from the Tocharian grave sites. The swastika was part of the original Indo-European language, meaning "well being" and the fact that the swastika is today widespread in China as a good luck charm is an indication of just how far the Tocharian influence was felt throughout that country.
    By the early 1990s, over a thousand Nordic corpses had been uncovered from the graveyards in the region (called Wapu); but by 1998, the Chinese government had halted further archeological expeditions to the area, quite likely for fear of exposing yet more ancient European faces to the world.
    The current inhabitants of the surrounding lands, who are obviously not pure Chinese and who speak a form of Turkish, rather than Chinese, have been agitating for independence for some time.
    The discovery of the White mummies has served to highlight their racial and ethnic differences from the Chinese and the issue has become a political hot potato for that country's government.
    However, some of the mummies which have already been uncovered are still on display in a local museum, while others lie in storerooms slowly deteriorating.
    CHINESE EMPERORS WITH BLUE AND GREEN EYES
    The new finds are forcing a re-examination of old Chinese books that describe historical or legendary figures of great height, with deep-set blue or green eyes, long noses, full beards, and red or blond hair. Scholars have traditionally scoffed at these accounts, but it now transpires that these accounts were correct.
    One of these accounts can be found in the song to the great general Lü by the Chinese poet Li He (circa 790-816 AD) in his "Romance of the Three Kingdoms" :
    Song: General Lü
    General Lü,
    The valiant-hearted,
    Riding alone on Scarlet Hare,
    Out of the gates of Ch'in,
    To weep at Gold Grain Mound
    By funeral trees.

    Inscrutable that vaulted azure,
    Arching over earth,
    This is the way the world wags
    In our Nine Provinces.
    Gleaming ore from Scarlet Hill!
    Hero of our time!
    Green-eyed general, you well know
    The will of Heaven!

    (Emphasis added. Translationfrom Goddesses, Ghosts, and Demons -- The Collected Poems of Li He (790 - 816), Translated by J.D. Frodsham, North Point Press, San Fransisco, 1983).
    While it is unknown as to what the exact influence these Whites had upon the Chinese civilization, it has been the subject of speculation - based upon old Buddhist manuscripts - that the tenets of the Buddhist religion may have been brought to the Far East by these Tocharian Celts.
    The existence of the Tocharians may also explain another great mystery of China: the existence of step pyramids near the city of Xian in Qui Chan province. These pyramids are without precedent in China but which were common to White civilizations.
    Above: One of a number of European style step pyramids (similar to Silbury Hill, England - see chapter 3) which can be found in near the city of Xian, Qui Chauan province, China. Can these mysterious (and very un-Chinese) structures be linked to the Tocharians? Another tantalizing clue of Indo-Europeans in China is the fact that the swastika - the ancient Sanskrit symbol for well being - is also common in China as a good luck charm.
    THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE TOCHARIANS
    With the advent of time, these White peoples mixed with Mongolian tribes surrounding them, and so in this way vanished - but the physical features of the people living in this part of China show very clearly part White and part Mongol traits - and differ substantially from other inhabitants of China, with blond hair not being unknown amongst them.
    Once again, these present day physical features are the living proof of yet another great lost White migration. Thus it was that the White civilization of China vanished through racial mixing. Only the crumbling ruins of their cities and their corpses remain as silent witnesses of their era.
    Above: This 900 AD painting from the caves at the Buddhist monastery at Bezeklik, Turfnan, Central Asia, depicts Tocharian worthies donating trays of moneybags to a Buddhist saint. Note the light hair and blue eyes of the Tocharian on the right, the last remnants of the Indo-European invaders of China.

    Lost White Settlements - China, Canary Islands

    Europeans in Ancient China

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    Siddhartha Gautama was a legendary spiritual teacher from ancient India and the historical founder of Buddhism. He is universally recognized by Buddhists as the Supreme Buddha of our age.

    Siddhartha was born a Sakyan prince (Indo-Scythian (Scythians were the direct ancestors of Russians)) north of Benares at Kapliavastu.

    Often, he is referred to in Buddhism as Shakyamuni Buddha or "The Awakened One of the Shakya/Sakya Clan."



    At the age of 29, deeply troubled by the suffering he saw around him, he renounced his privileged life, his wife and child, and went out among the Shramana (shaman) ascetics to seek understanding. After 6 years of struggle he finally understood the meaning of enlightenment under the legendary Bo-tree.

    After this he was recognized as a Buddha (meaning "The Awakened One"). He taught for some forty years then died at Kusinagara in Oudh, India. According to the Mahayana tradition the Buddha did not actually die, because the Buddha is a spiritual entity called the Dharmakaya.

    Estimates of the number of Buddhists vary from 230 to 500 million, but the most common figure today is between 350 and 400 million.

    • Theravāda Buddhism, using Pāli as its scriptural language, is the dominant form of Buddhism in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar. Also the Dalit Buddhist movement in India (inspired by B. R. Ambedkar) practices Theravada.
    • East Asian forms of Buddhism that use scriptures in Chinese are dominant in most of China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Vietnam as well as within Chinese and Japanese communities within Indochina, Southeast Asia and the West.
    • Northern Buddhism, using the Tibetan language, is found in Tibet and the surrounding area of India, Bhutan, Mongolia, Nepal and China.
    • Most Buddhist groups in the West are at least nominally affiliated to some eastern tradition listed above. An exception is the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order, though they can be considered Mahayanist in a broad sense.
    At the present time, the teachings of all three branches of Buddhism have spread throughout the world, and Buddhist texts are increasingly translated into local languages. While in the West, Buddhism is often seen as exotic and progressive, in the East, Buddhism is regarded as familiar and part of the establishment. Buddhists in Asia are frequently well organized and well funded. In a number of countries, it is recognized as an official religion and receives state support. In the West, Buddhism is recognized as one of the growing spiritual influences.

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    Buddha Was White


    On Martial Arts, Zen, and the Blue-Eyed, Red-Bearded Barbarian


    Dedicated to all the Viracochas of the Past, Present, and Future

    Throughout history, many conquerors have attempted to destroy the cultures of their defeated enemies. To cite one example, this was seen in the Japanese occupation of Korea (1910-1945), where the public usage of the Korean language and culture were outlawed on Korean soil, and a rewriting of Korean history (through a Japanese bias) was undertaken. Such an attempt at complete eradication of one culture by another has almost always been carried out with brute force and with swift retaliation against any resistance.
    More recently, however, with the manipulation of mass media, entire nations have become subjected to alien ideas by a much more effective method. Whereas previously the brazen invaders would attempt to change their subjects by fiat and coercion, and in the process would expect almost immediate compliance, the new invaders resort to a more subtle and patient technique: social psychology, which in time inculcates regret, shame, and self-loathing (even self-laceration) among the conquered…

    One of the most successful suggestions of this sort of mass brainwashing has been the idea – repeated ad nauseam – that the occupied nations of shared racial stock have nothing to be proud of, that everything worth knowing, studying, and enjoying, has been the product of other races; e.g., the Amerindians taught oneness with Nature, the sub-Saharan Africans have a musical “soul”, etc. The host nation, as a result of decades of “education”, has come to believe that everything - from the very development of civilization to the invention of the inconsequential “doh ‘nob” (i.e., door knob) - has been the product of the creative genius of others, and that the host nation itself has achieved nothing. With such dogma has come the glorification of “others”. That such a “belief” could be manufactured and then accepted is indeed novel in the annals of history, but that its adherents be the very people whose past attests to the greatest creators, discoverers, and adventurers is not just new, but outright unbelievable!
    It is not the goal of this article to rehash the easily attainable knowledge of this people’s list of achievements, but to add to that list a previously little known fact that will come to many as a serendipitous discovery. For even to those who have “ears to hear and eyes to see”, that is, for those who know that Whites had been apotheosized by non-Whites in previous centuries and are still idolized, albeit in a round about way today, it should come as a delightful surprise that the highly-esteemed figure believed to be the inventor of Far-Eastern martial arts was in fact White – Nordic White - and that this man is none other than the very essence of the philosophy of the Far East, especially in Japan. The god-like being that I am referring to is the non plus ultra of not only martial arts, but of Zen Buddhism: Bodhidharma, also known as the “Blue-Eyed Barbarian” (Cleary, J. C., 1988; Cleary, T., 1978; Corless, 1989; Iryŏn, 1972; Reid and Croucher, 1983; Soothill and Hodous, 1969; Yuanwu, 1961) and/or the “Red-Bearded Barbarian” (Cleary, T., 1978; Corless, 1989; Heine, 1996; Yamada, 2004).
    As Western students know, Buddhism - which later denigrated into a religion - has been one of the dominant philosophies in practically every nation of Asia. From Iran and to far-away Indonesia, Buddhism has played a role. Unfortunately, what many of them do not know is Buddhism’s Nordic origins. Although these students can allude to innumerous Oriental works of art that portray the Buddha as a Mongoloid, what they fail to realize is that nations that adopt another race’s gods and heroes often end up changing them to resemble their own physiognomies. Consequently, though most depictions of the Buddha show him to be a Mongoloid, some show him in a truer fashion.
    An example of such racial transformation can be observed in the Korean grotto, Sŏkkuram. There a Buddha with Oriental features is seated in his usual meditative posture with his White disciples in a semi-circle behind him (Adams, 1991). Thus, the Koreans, as late as the 8th century A.D. knew that the Buddha’s original disciples were White, even if they portrayed him as a Korean.,
    According to the Chinese, the propagators of Buddhism came from the “Western Regions” (central Asia and India), such as the Kushan Empire (c. 1st – 3rd cent. A.D.) whose emissaries arrived via the Silk Road and “contributed vastly” to propagating Buddhism (Grousset, 1970). Most of the translators of Buddhist sutras from Sanskrit to Chinese were also central Asians (Kakhun, 1969). The appellations “Blue-Eyed Barbarian” and “Red-Bearded Barbarian” were common monikers for foreign monks who proselytized Buddhism among the Chinese (Cleary, J. C., 1988; Cleary, T., 1978; Heine, 1996; Yamada, 2004), a fact born out by the Bezeklik murals (7th-10th centuries A.D.) of Western China which depict Buddhist monks and merchants with just such physical features (Day, 2001). The Sage of the Sakas, “Sakyamuni”, is known to have had blue eyes, considered to be one physical characteristic of a “Great Man” (Walshe, 1995).
    Bodhitāra (ca. 461-534 A.D.) was the third son of the southern Indian King “Incense Arrival” (Yüan, 1990), a member of the Ksatriya (warrior-caste) (Broughton, 1999). Converted to Buddhism by his mentor, the 27th patriarch of Buddhism, Prajñātāra (Yüan, 1990), Bodhitāra committed himself to the life of an anchorite shortly after his father’s death. With his name changed to Bodhidharma (”enlightenment-law”), he traveled to China to preach Buddhism.
    According to the earliest sources Bodhidharma arrived in China on foot (Dumoulin, 1988; Yang, H.C. 1984), though other sources state that he went by sea (Dumoulin, 1988; Suzuki, 1933; Yüan, 1990), landing in Guangzhou à la Lohengrin, in a swan-boat, as depicted in a mural in “The Temple of the Pagoda of the Sixth Patriarch’s Hair.” Though he arrived in southern China, his final destination was in the north. In order to get there, however, he had to cross the Yangtze River “miraculously” by standing on a single reed (Broughton, 1999; McFarland, 1987; Wang, 1988), a feat commemorated in many Far-Eastern works of art. Having crossed the Yangtze, he traveled to the Shaolin Temple.
    Like many other important Buddhist temples and pagodas, the Shaolin Temple (”little – or young - forest”), was founded by and dedicated to a non-Chinese monk, the Indian Buddhabhadra or Ba-tuo, in 496 A.D. (Broughton, 1999; Wang, 1988). The Shaolin Temple is known as the home of martial arts. One can open up any martial arts manual or work and as a preface to the art, there will be an expostulation of its history. All books or manuals on this peculiarly “Eastern” art – bar none – should they include its history, attest to the same place of origin and founder, the Shaolin Temple and Bodhidharma. It is remarkable that Whites do not know that this most “Oriental” art is in fact White in origin. Orientals, however, do!
    Bodhidharma’s stay at the Shaolin temple proved to be quite fruitful. Early on, having noticed that the monks lacked vigor and physical prowess, he introduced stretching and breathing exercises (Yang, J.-M. 1989). Out of this initial practice grew eventually the art of fighting with fists, feet, and weapons. Bodhidharma is also believed to be the inventor of tea (McFarland, 1987; Red Pine, 1989). Legend has it that one day he fell asleep during meditation and was so angered at his weakness that he caught off his eye lids. His tears fell on the ground and grew into tea bushes. Hence, the tradition of monks drinking tea to stay awake during meditation (McFarland, 1987; Red Pine, 1989).
    More important than martial arts to the Far East was Meditation Buddhism. Meditation - Dhyāna (in Sanskrit), Chan (in Chinese), and Zen (in Japanese) - Buddhism became another hallmark of the Shaolin temple. In this version of Buddhism, meditation is the sole source of enlightenment. Incantations, good deeds and prayers do not amount to a hill of beans. Perhaps Bodhidharma summed it up best in his famous dialogue with the Chinese emperor Wu of the Liang dynasty (Broughton, 1999; Suzuki, 1961; Yüan, 1990):











    Emperor Wu
    : “Since my accession to the throne, temples have been built, scriptures copied, and monks saved without number. What kind of merit has been accumulated?”
    Bodhidharma
    : “No merit.”
    Emperor Wu
    : “Why no merit?”
    Bodhidharma
    : “Such deeds bear but small fruits of the human and heavenly worlds, and are causes of births and deaths. They are like shadows following objects. They look as if they exist but have no reality.”
    Emperor Wu
    : “Then what is true merit?”
    Bodhidharma
    : “The pure wisdom is wonderfully complete, and the nature of its essence is immaterial. Such merit as this is not to be sought by worldly means.”
    Emperor Wu
    : “What is the first principle of the Sacred Teaching?”
    Bodhidharma
    : “It is vastness itself. There is nothing holy.”
    Emperor Wu
    : “Who is speaking to me?”
    Bodhidharma
    : “I don’t know.”

    The Emperor could not understand these words of the Master.

    During his tenure at the Shaolin temple, Bodhidharma was said to have migrated up the side of a mountain and spent nine years in meditation (Broughton, 1999; Red Pine, 1989; Wang, 1988; Yüan, 1990; Yuanwu, 1961). He was so sedulous, the legend further claims, that during meditation his arms and legs fell off, the intense stare of his eyes bore holes into the cave wall, and his body left its shadow on the wall (McFarland, 1987; Wang, 1988). To commemorate this patron of meditation, the “Blue-Eyed Demon”, many artists dedicated artwork, stellae, a gate (with the inscription “Where meditation leads to wonder”), and a very large statue of a very un-Chinese looking monk, built in 1997.


    In time Bodhidharma’s Chan Buddhism spread throughout China and to neighboring Korea where Chan became Sŏn, and the Chinese name for Bodhidharma, Damo, became Dalma. In Korea, the 28th patriarch of Buddhism, in direct succession of the Buddha, has a mountain and temple named after him.
    As Chan or Sŏn Buddhism spread across Asia (even to Tibet and Vietnam,), it made its way to Japan. During the 12th and 13th centuries Bodhidharma’s fame reached Japan where he was renamed Daruma and his esoteric philosophy became known as Zen Buddhism (Dumoulin, 2005; McFarland, 1987; Suzuki, 1953). The island nation’s new religio-philosophical orientation would eventually permeate every aspect of its culture: its gardening (stone and rock landscaping), its elaborate and rigidly structured ceremony of tea-drinking and tea ceramics, its architecture, calligraphy, drama (Nō), paintings,, poetry, flower arrangements, even it popular pastimes (Dumoulin, 2005; McFarland, 1987; Suzuki, 1953). Zen became the foundation stone for not only Japanese martial arts (especially archery and swordsmanship; Dumoulin, 2005; McFarland, 1987), but also for the Japanese code of chivalry, Bushidō (”The Way of the Warrior”) (Dumoulin, 2005). Many disciples of Bushidō, better known as the Samurai, among them their most famous member, Miyamoto Musashi (1584-1645; Dumoulin, 2005; McFarland, 1987), were Zen artists. The Samurai had paintings of Bodhidharma even on the hilt guards of their swords (McFarland, 1987).
    Even wishing for something desirable became associated with the Bodhidharma cult. While wishing, one eye of a Bodhidharma head-doll is colored black, and if the wish later came true, the other eye would be colored (the same color). Other examples of the cult included Bodhidharma toys with a Zen adage, bawdy paintings depicting Bodhidharma, and eggplants and snowmen (”Snow Daruma”) thought to represent Bodhidharma in meditation (Addiss, 1989; McFarland, 1987). There are even Bodhidharma temples, an association, festivals, and markets (McFarland, 1987).



    (Bodhidharma by Hakuin Ekaku (1686-1769). It reads: “Zen points directly to the human heart. See into your nature and become Buddha.”)


    Not all of the claims of Bodhidharma’s accomplishments go unchallenged. There is a debate on whether or not he even existed and that he ever authored any of the tracks attributed to him. Skeptics deny that he introduced martial arts to the Far East. Chinese nativists asseverate that the art is indigenous to China; maybe, but then, maybe not. As most ancient works point to southern India as Bodhidharma’s birthplace, it is quite fitting to find that not only did it house the great Buddhist Empire of the Pallava,, Dynasty,,, but that there is also a martial art native to that region: kalarippayattu, (Zarrilli, 2003).
    In the final analysis, even if Bodhidharma was nothing more than a will-o’-the-wisp, a pious wish of Buddhists to justify themselves and give themselves airs, the fact remains that many peoples of the Orient, especially the Japanese, venerate this figure, a White man!
    It has already come to light among interested Whites that the aborigines of the New World are beholden to such mythic figures as Quetzalcoatl, Kukulkan, Kon-Tiki Viracocha, et al. (Gordon, 1971; Heyerdahl, 1953, 1960, 1976; Keeler, 1960).,,
    Throughout history, Whites have played the most pivotal role in the world. Isn’t it about time that this fact became known, especially during this very dark period, that the White world, rather than being ashamed of it, should declare proudly and forthrightly, “We Are the World!”?


    References


    Abbas, Afsar. (2003). Pallava Empire of Dravidia. Retrieved on July 26, 2007, from http://www.iranian.com/History/2003/May/Pallava/index.html.

    Adams, E. B. (1991). Korea’s Golden Age: Cultural Spirit of Silla in Kyongju. Seoul: Seoul International Publishing House.

    Addiss, S. (1989). The Art of Zen. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.

    Awakawa, Y. (1970). Zen Painting. (Trans. J. Bester). Tokyo: Kodansha International.

    Bailey, J. (1994). Sailing to Paradise: The Discovery of the Americas by 7000 B.C. New York: Simon & Schuster.

    Broughton, J. L. (1999). The Bodhidharma Anthology: The Earliest Records of Zen. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Cleary, J. C. (1988). A Buddha From Korea: The Zen Teachings of T’aego. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc.

    Cleary, T. (1978). Sayings and Doings of Pai-chang: Ch’an Master of Great Wisdom. Los Angeles: Center Publications.

    Corless, R. J. (1989). The Vision of Buddhism: The Space Under the Tree. New York: Paragon House.

    Day, J. V. (2001). Indo-European Origins: The Anthropological Evidence. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man.

    Dumoulin, H. (1988). Zen Buddhism: A History. Volume 1: India and China. (Trans. by J. W. Heisig & P. Knitter). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

    Dumoulin, H. (2005). Zen Buddhism: A History. Volume 2: Japan. (Trans. by J. W. Heisig & P. Knitter). Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom, Inc.

    Dung, T. P. (2006). A letter to friends about our lineage. Retrieved on August 11, 2006, from http://www.plumvillage.org/general/s...%20lineage.htm

    Gordon, C. H. (1971). Links Between the Old World and Ancient America. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.

    Grousset, R. (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Nhât Hanh, T. (2001). Master Tang Hôi: First Zen Teacher in Vietnam and China. Berkeley: Parallax Press.

    Heine, S. (1996). Putting the “Fox” back in the “Wild Fox Koan”: The intersection of philosophical and popular religious elements in the Ch’an/Zen koan tradition. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 56 (2), pp. 257-317.

    Heyerdahl, T. (1953). American Indians in the Pacific: The Theory Behind the Kon-Tiki Expedition


    Heyerdahl, T. (1960). Aku-Aku: The Secret of Easter Island. New York: Pocket Books.

    Heyerdahl, T. (1976). Fatu-Hiva: Back to Nature. New York: New American Library.

    Keeler, C. (1960). Secrets of the Cuna Earthmother: A Comparative Study of Ancient Religions. New York: Exposition Press.

    Kakhun. (1969). Lives of Eminent Korean Monks. (Trans. by P. Lee). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Iryŏn. (1972). Samguk yusa;legends and history of the three kingdoms of ancient KoreaNotes sur quelques artistes des Six Dynasties et des T’ang. T’oung Pao, Vol. 22, pp. 215-291.. (Trans. by T.-H. Ha & G. K. Mintz). Seoul: Yonsei University Press.

    Mallory, J. P. & Mair, V. H. (2000). The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest People from the West. London: Thames & Hudson.

    McFarland, H. N. (1987). Daruma: The Founder of Zen in Japanese Art and Popular Culture. Tokyo: Kodansh International Ltd.

    Pelliot, Paul. (1923).


    Raj, J. D. M. (1975). Silambam Fencing. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon Press.

    Red Pine. (1989). The Zen Teaching of Bodhidharma. San Francisco: North Point Press.


    Reid, H. & Croucher, M. (1983). The Way of the Warrior: The Paradox of the Martial Arts. Woodstock, NY: The Overlook Press.

    Saturno, William. (2006, January). The dawn of Maya gods and kings. National Geographic, 209 (1), 68-77.

    Soothill, W. E. & Hodous, L. (1969). A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms. Taipei: Ch’eng-Wen Publishing Company.

    Suzuki, D. T. (1933). Essays in Zen Buddhism (Second Series). London: Luzac and Company.

    Suzuki, D. T. (1953). Essays in Zen Buddhism (Third Series). London: Rider and Company.

    Suzuki, D. T. (1961). Essays in Zen Buddhism (First Series). New York: Grove Press, Inc.


    Von Wuthenau, A. (1975). Unexpected Faces in Ancient America. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.


    Walshe, M. (1995). The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Dīgha Nikāya. Boston: Wisdom Publishers.



    Wang, H. (1988). Tales of the Shaolin Monastery. (Trans. by C. J. Lonsdale). Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Co., Ltd.

    Werner, E. T. C. (1977). A Dictionary of Chinese Mythology. Boston: Longwood Press.

    Yamada, K. (2004). The Gateless Gate: The Classic Book of Zen Koans. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications.

    Yang, H.-C. (1984). A Record of Buddhist Monasteries in Lo-Yang. (trans. by Y.-T. Wang). Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Yang, J.-M. (1989). Muscle/Tendon
    Changing and Marrow/Brain Washing Chi Kung: The Secret of Youth. Jamaica Plain, MA: Yang’s Martial Arts Association.

    Yü, L. (1974). The Classic of Tea: Origins & Rituals. (Trans. by F. R. Carpenter). Hopewell, NJ: The Ecco Press.

    Yüan, T. (1990). The Transmission of the Lamp: Early Masters. (Trans. by S. Ogata). Wolfeboro, NH: Longwood Academic.


    Yuanwu. (1961). The Blue Cliff Records. (Trans. by R. D. M. Shaw). London: M. Joseph.

    Zarrilli, P. B. (2003). When the Body Becomes All Eyes: Paradigms, Discourses, and Practices of Power in Kalarippayattu, a South Indian Martial Art. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

    Zürcher, E. (1972). The Buddhist Conquest of China: The Spread and Adaptation of Buddhism in Early Medieval China. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

    Zvelebil, K. V. (1987). The sound of the hand. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Vol. 107 (1), pp. 125-126.
    The author would like to thank “AP” and “JKAS” for their humor and emendations.


    White Revolution Buddha Was White

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    The 1938-1939 German Expedition to Tibet was a May 1938 - August 1939 German scientific expedition led by German zoologist and SS officer Ernst Schäfer.

    1938?1939 German expedition to Tibet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    Post Re: Red Haired Mummies of China

    Here is a Genetic study published by Oxford University regarding the population in Linzi(Modern Day Zibo), Shandong Province, China
    Genetic Structure of a 2,500-Year-Old Human Population in China and Its Spatiotemporal Changes


    Interesting facts:

    • The Linzi(Zibo) population of 500 B.C genetically match up to present-day European populations.

    • The Current Day population in Zibo are genetically closest to the Mongols, Japanese, and Koreans.

    Shandong Province, Linzi was in Central Shandong.

    They both lived around 500 BC, and in the Shandong Province. Just 90-120 km from the capital of the ancient Qi State - Linzi/Zibo.


    They were little known during their life, and their biographies, sculptures, and paintings were composed 600-1400 years after they died. Therefore, the people painting their image would have been Chinese, who probably didn't know that during 500 BC European people were the inhabitants of the Shandong Province.


    Confucius was a teacher who more than any other shaped Chinese culture.
    Although little known in his lifetime, Confucius was revered as the greatest of sages throughout most of China's history. His teaching, Confucianism, was the state teaching from the beginning of the Han Dynasty in 202 BC to the end of the imperial period in 1911.

    The Art of War by Sun Tzu has been one of the most popular combat collections in history. Ancient Chinese have long viewed this book as one of the entrance test materials, and it is one of the most important collections of books in the Chinese literature.

    Just 90 km North of Qufu(Confucius birth site), was Linzi, the ancient capital city. It was all white according to the oxford DNA study. This makes you think, if the Linzi inhabitants were drastically different from the rest of the province, wouldn't anybody write about this? That is why during the time of Confucius I believe all the people in Shandong were white, because you would think if Sun Tsu was Asian he would have amassed an army to kick out the foreigner from the State Capital right? You would think if Confucius or Mencius were Asian they would have mentioned the capital City being primarily inhabited by Icelanders! Therefore, I can only assume that Confucius and Sun Tzu were white because the only Genetic Evidence in their birth province of Shandong shows the inhabitants were white during their life.

    According to the Oxford DNA evidence, by the Tang Dynasty of 600-900 AD, the Asians genetically became the face of the Shandong Province. The whites no longer were majority by 1AD.

    Therefore, is it not likely that those who drew paintings and sculptured Confucius as Asian looking during the Tang dynasty did so because they were Asian looking them self? Did they know 1400 years prior during Confucius' time that the face of the Shandong people were more closer to Northern Europeans than Asian?

    I have not found any genetic study during the time of Confucius showing the Shandong inhabitants were Asian. The only study came back a very surprising result of Europeans as the face of the Shandong people during the time of Confucius.


    Shandong Province has been stated as the Birthplace of Chinese Culture? But I think with the evidence of Europeans people in China 2500 years ago, does this mean that all the Chinese advancement are because of whites?

    Confucius lived from 551-479 BC in the Shandong Province, in a city called Qufu.

    During Confucius's time, there was no genetic DNA evidence in Linzi(Zibo) of any Asians. All the residents in the the Qi State Capital were most closely related to Icelanders, not Asians!


    Sun Tsu was born around 450-500 BC as well, exactly the same time of the study, in the shandong province, just as Confucius.

    Whites in Shandong China before Asians: DNA study - Stormfront



    Caucasians preceded East Asians in basin

    "After years of controversy and political intrigue, archaeologists using genetic testing have proved that Caucasians roamed China's Tarim Basin 1,000 years before East Asian people arrived...."


    The White population(celtic/nordic) existed there since at least 2000 BC.

    Another Article.
    A meeting of civilisations: The mystery of China's celtic mummies


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